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Psychodiagnostics 




KANSAS CITY MO PUBLIC LIBRARY 




HERMANN RORSCHACH 



PSYCHODIAGNOSTICS 

A DIAGNOSTIC TEST BASED ON PERCEPTION 
INCLUDING RORSCHACITS PAPER 

THE APPLICATION OF THE FORM INTERPRETATION TEST 

(PUBLISHED POSTHUMOUSLY BY DR. EMIL OBERHOLZER) 



TRANSLATION AND ENGLISH EDITION BY 

PAUL LEMKAU, M. D* 
THE HENRY PHIPPS PSYCHIATRIC CLIMC, BALTIMORE 

AND 

BERNARD KRONENBERG, M. D. 
NEW YORK 

FIFTH EDITION, WITH A NEW BIBLIOGRAPHY 




VERLAG HANS H U B E R, BERNE, SWITZERLAND 

Distributors for the U.S.A. 

GRUNE & STRATTON INC. 

381 Fourth Avenue New York, N.Y 



Allc ReAtc vorbehialteii 
Copyright by Verlag Hans Huber, Bern 1942 

In der Scfaweiz gedruckt Imprim6 en Sukse Printed in Switzerland 

1951 



PL, ."> ^E TO THE 



The widespread and growing interest in the Rorsehach test among English- 
speaking workers has made apparent the need for a more easily available 
source of information concerning Rorschach's original and basic work than 
the German Editions supply. This English Translation is presented in the 
hope of filling that need. We are aware that this need has been met sporad- 
ically by various unauthorized translations, but these have been available to 
bet few of those interested in the test. None of these translations was at 
hand during the preparation of the translation presented here. 

The task of translating Rorschach's German is doubly difficult. One wishes 
to present his ideas adequately and at the same time preserve as much as 
possible of the personality of Rorschach as it is revealed in his choice of 
words, his sentence structure, and his delicate shadings of meanings* The 
first attempt yielded a too literal translation which did not present the ideas 
clearly enough. This first effort was completely rewritten and carefully 
checked to make sure that the sense as well as the flavor of the original was 
preserved to the greatest possible extent. 

We are especially grateful to Dr. Adolf Meyer who encouraged us to take 
up the task and who has continued to be interested in our progress. Many 
individual points have been discussed with colleagues at the Phipps Clinic, 
and we are grateful to them for their help and stimulation. To Mrs. Florence 
Halpern of the Staff of Bellevue Hospital in New York, and Miss M. R. Caine, 
also of New York, we also owe our thanks for help with particular problems 
arising in the course of the work. Other colleagues have generously con- 
sidered our questions with us and have encouraged us; these friends are too 
numerous to mention but all may be assured that their help was appreciated. 
Especial thanks are due to Dr. Christopher Tietze for time-consuming labor 
in checking the manuscript for those finer shadings of meaning apparent 
only to one whose original language is German. The intelligent and co- 
operative criticism of Miss Helen Kaste as she typed the manuscript has 
resulted in the elimination of many errors which would otherwise have 
marred the work, 2nd Lt. H. L. Siple, ATJS, was helpful in the preparation of 
the index'. Bernard Kronenberg. 

Paul Lemkau. 



CONTENTS 



Preface to the English Translation ............. 3 

Epilogue .......... .......... 9 

Preface to the Second Edition .......... ...* II 

Introduction ................... 13 

List of Symbols and Abbreviations ............. 14 

L The Method, 

1. Apparatus ..... . ............. IS 

2. Procedure .................. . 16 

3. Interpretation of the Figures as Perception ........ . 16 

XL TMfe Factors of the Experiment. 

1. Statement of Problems ................ 19 

2. Number of Responses ............ .... 21 

3. Reaction Time .................. 21 

4. Failure to Answer ............. .... 22 

5. Form, Movement and Color Responses: Their Relation to the Perceptive Process 22 

a) Form Responses ........... ..... 23 

b) Movement Responses ............... 25 

c) Color Responses .... ............ 29 

d) Incidence of Movement and Color in the same Interpretation ..... 35 

6. Mode of Apperception ................ 36 

a) Statement of Problems .............. 36 

b) Scoring the Mode of Apperception ........... 37 

c) Number of W, D, Dd, etc .............. 40 

d) Apperceptive Types ............... 41 

e) Sequence in Mode of Apperception ........... 43 

7. Content of Interpretations. Percent Animal Responses ........ 45 

8 Original Answers ................. 47 

9. Summary ................... 49 

III. Further Ohserrationi on the Method. 

1. Prerequisites of the Individual Plates ............ 52 

2. Parallel Series .................. 53 

3. Control Tests ................ - 53 

4. Recording Technic ................. 54 



IV. Mesnlt. Pmgc 

1. Intelligence * 56 

2. Influence of Volition on the Factors 6<5 

3. Effect of Mood on the Components of Intelligence 70 

4. Inter-relations of Movement and Color Responses. Experience Types. Introversion, 
Extratension. Coartation 72 

5. Experience Type and Living 87 

6. Experience Type and the Components of Intelligence 88 

7. Experience Type and Mood 93 

8. Temporary Variations in Experience Type 94 

9. Changes in Experience Type in the Course of the Life Span 95 

10. Comparative Researches in Experience Type 96 

11. Affective Status (Personality) 97 

12. Imagination 102 

13. Experience Type and Type of Imagery 104 

14. Experience Type and the Sense Hallucinated 107 

15. Experience Type and Talent 107 

16. Variations and Comparisons of Talents 110 

17. Experience Type, Talent and Instinct 113 

18. Experience Type, Personality and Talent 115 

19. Experience Type and Illness 115 

20. The Development of Experience Type 118 

V* The Use of the Foxm Interpretation Test im Diagnosis. 

1. Practicability 120 

2. Possible Objections to the Test 121 

3. Computations for the Purpose of Diagnosis . . . 122 

4. The Content of the Interpretations 122 

5. The Test and Psychoanalysis 123 

Examples. 
Normal (including feeblemindedness and non-psychotic moodiness) : 

1. Average Normal 126 

2. Sample Test of Subject of Above Average Attainments ...... 128 

3. Sample Test of Subject of Below Average Attainments 130 

4. Feebleminded Individual 132 

5. Hypomanic (Mild Cyciothymic) 133 

6. Introversive Tendency in Individual in Extratensive Occupation .... 135 

7. Imaginative Individual 137 

8. Pedant 139 

9. Normal, Advanced Age 140 

Neuroses: 

10. Hysteria 142 

11. Neurasthenia (Abulia, Infantilism) 143 

12. Compulsion Neurosis 146 

13. Nervous Exhaustion* (Latent Schizophrenia) 155 

Psychoses : 

1. Schizophrenic: 

14. Dementia Simplex 158 



15. Hebephrenia ............. .... 159 

16. Akdic Catalonia ........ ... ..... 161 

II. Catalonia; Motor Excitement and Scattering ......... 162 

IS. Catalonia Snowing Blocking ......... .... 165 

19. Paranoid Schizophrenia ............... 167 

2. Manic-depressiYe: 

20. Depression ............. ..... 168 

21. Elation ...... . ....... ..... 169 

3. Epilepsy: 

22. Typical Epileptic Dementia, Rapid Course .......... 170 

23. Epileptoid .... .............. 173 

4. Organic Psychoses: 

24. Arteriosclerotic Dementia with Depression .......... 174 

25. Korsakoff Psychosis ................ 17S 

26. ProgressiYe Paralysis ......... . ..... 178 

27. Senile Dementia ................ 179 

28. Encephalitis Lethargica ......... - ..... ISO 



Summary .................... 181 



YIL lite Application of the Font l^ei-p^etallon test. 

The Application of the Form Interpretation test ......... 184 

Publications of Hermann Rorschach ..... . ....... 217 

Outstanding Publications on the Rorschach Method ......... 218 



18841922. 

Hermann Rorschach was born in Zurich, November 8, 1884. His youth 
was spent with the younger children in the family in Schaffhausen. It was 
originally his intention to study natural science, hot the death of his father, 
a teacher of drawing, precipitated a situation in which the young man turned 
to Ernst Haekel for advice, and it was suggested that he go into medicine. 
He followed the advice, studied in Neuenburg, Zurich, 'Berne and Berlin, 
completing his studies and qualifying in 1910. The same year he married a 
Russian colleague who soon became his comrade and collaborator. He be- 
came an assistant physician, first in the insane asylum at M uensterlingen, then 
at Muensingen. He accepted a position in a private sanatorium in Moscow in 
1913 but returned to Switzerland after one year. From June, 1914, to No- 
vember, 1915, he was physician in the psychiatric clinic and asylum at Bern- 
Waldau, after which time he became assistant physician in a hospital in 
Herisau. While still holding this position he died, April 2, 1922, after only 
a few days illness due to appendicitis complicated by peritonitis. 

Only those who knew Hermann Rorschach's versatility can understand 
what his death meant and still means to Swiss Psychiatry. He was not only 
a congenial co-worker, an extraordinary colleague and comrade, and a kind 
person; he possessed as well outstanding qualities as a practical psychiatrist 
and as a research scientist. 

Flexibility of character, rapid adaptability, fine acumen, and a sense for 
the practical were combined in Hermann Rorschach with a talent for intro- 
spection and synthesis. It was this combination which made him outstanding. 
In addition to this rare nature, which tempered personal emotional experience 
with practical knowledge, he possessed sound traits of character most valu- 
able in a psychiatrist. Most important of these were an unerring tendency 
to search for the truth, a strict critical faculty which he did not hesitate to 
apply to himself, and a warmth of feeling and kindness. 

These few remarks will make it possible for those who could not know 
Rorschach to imagine what he was, and what he might have become. Bleuler 
fittingly expressed this when he said, Hermann Rorschach was the hope of 
an entire generation of Swiss Psychiatry . 

Dr. W. Morgenthaler. 



PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. 



Hermann Rorschach himself considered Ms Psychodiagnostics mere be- 
ginning. He worked indefatigably toward its completion until death inter- 
vened. 

With the need for a new edition the question arose whether the work 
begun by Rorschach could not be continued by someone else. This meant 
that the first edition should be changed, improved and completed so that it 
would contain the results that have been evolved since his death and certain 
gaps might be filled. 

Anyone acquainted with Rorschach's method and who has worked with it 
to any extent will recognize how difficult it would be for another to prepare 
a new edition. Rorschach's method is an expression of Ms own personalty 
so that method and the personality of its author are inextricably interwoven. 
It will, therefore, be apparent to those who possess the clinical foundation 
necessary to work with the method successfully in psychopathology and 
psychiatry, that even the most skillful revision and completion of this rather 
personal method would result in the inclusion of some foreign influences, 
thus disturbing the unity of the work. Such revision would probably prove 
damaging. 

"We decided, therefore, to leave the first edition entirely unchanged ex- 
cept for a few corrections of the text. This was done for the practical reasons 
mentioned above and not merely out of respect for the deceased author* We 
have added the only other work on this subject, aside from the Psychodia- 
gnostics, which the author left to us. It has been published posthumously by 
Dr. Emil Oberholzer under the title Zur Auswertung des Formdeutversuches 
in the number of the Zeitschrift fur die gesamte Neurologie und Psychiatrie 
which appeared in honor of Prof. Bleuler. It is an important addition to the 
Psychodiagnostics since in it he discusses how he would like to have his 
method of diagnosis of the personality conceived and interpreted, and 
illustrates with concrete examples. In this paper, also, we have limited our- 
selves to editorial corrections. 



-- 12 

We are exceedingly thankful to his widow, Dr. Horseback, for supplying 
us with material for comparison and for aid in correcting the proofs. We wish 
to thank Dr. EmU Oberholzer for his many valuable suggestions, and the 
publisher, Hans Hnber, for the fine appearance of the new edition, in spite 
of difficulties. 



Bern, January, 1932. 



The Editor, 

Dr. W. Morgenthaler. 



INTRODUCTION. 



The following pages describe the technic of and the results thus far 
achieved in a psychological experiment which, despite its simplicity, has 
proved to be of value in research and in general testing. At the outset it 
must be pointed out that all of the results are predominantly empirical. The 
questions which gave rise to the original experiments of this sort (1911) were 
of a different type from those which slowly developed as the work progressed. 
The conclusions drawn, therefore, are to be regarded more as observations 
than as theoretical deductions. The theoretical foundation for the experiment 
is, for the most part, still quite incomplete. 

It must also be noted that there has been constant checking of the ob- 
servations on normal subjects against observations of patients, and vice versa* 

Hermann Rorschach. 



LIST OF AND ABBREVIATIONS. 



R 

W 
DW 

D 

Dd 

S 

Bo 

Apper. 

Sequence 

F 

M 

FC 



C 
Experience 

Type 
H 
A 
Hd 
Ad 
Obj. 
Ldscp. 



Total Responses. 

Plate Interpreted as a Whole (Whole Answer). 

Plate is interpreted as a whole secondarily, the answer based primarily on a 

detail. 

A normal detail of the plate (Detail Answer). 

An unusual or small detail (Small Detail Answer). 

White intermediate figures (Space detail). 

A detail is interpreted in the place of a whole. Example: in Plate III, only 

the heads are seen. 

Apperceptive Type. Relation of the apperceptive modes. W, D, etc. 

Sequence of W, D, etc., in the individual plate. 

Form Answers. Interpretation is determined primarily by the form of the blot. 

Movement Answer. Interpretation is determined by kinaesthetic influences. 

Form-Color Answer. The interpretation is determined primarily by the form 

and secondarily by the color of the blot. 

Color-Form Answer. The interpretation is determined primarily by the color, 

secondarily by the form of the blot. 

Color Answer. The interpretation is determined by the color of the blot alone. 

Relation of M to C answer.; ^ + * + Q 

Interpretation of Human Figure. 
Interpretation of Animal Figure. 
Interpretation of Part of the Human Figure. 
Interpretation of Part of Animal Figure. 
Interpretation of Inanimate Object. 
Interpretation of Landscape. 
A + Ad 



Animal Percent. 



R 



X 100, 



Orig,%> 



Percent Original Answers (Answers occurring no more than once in 100 
Tests) of Total Answers. 



I. THE 

1. Apparatus. 

The experiment consists In the interpretation of accidental frm$ f that 
is, of non-specific forms. A repro duct ion of the figures in their present form 
is issued as a supplement to this book and should serve not only for illustra- 
tion but as available apparatus* 

The production of such accidental forms is very simple: a few large ink 
biots are thrown on a piece of paper, the paper folded, and the ink spread 
between the two halves of the sheet. Not all figures so obtained an be used, 
for those used must fulfill certain conditions. In the first place, the forms 
must be relatively simple; complicated pictures make the computations of 
the factors of the experiment too difficult. Furthermore, the distribution of 
the blots on the plate must fulfill certain requirements of composition or 
they will not be suggestive, with the result that many subjects will reject them 
as simply an ink-bio t without consideration of other possible inter- 
pretations. 

Every figure in the series has to fulfill certain special requirements as 
well as these general ones, and each, as well as any whole series, must be 
thoroughly tried out before it can be used as apparatus for the test. (The 
individual requirements of the plates and the construction of parallel series 
is discussed on page 52.) The construction of a suitable series of ten figures 
is not so simple as might appear at first glance. 

From the method of preparation it will be apparent that the figures will 
be symmetrical, with very little difference between the two halves. Asym- 
metrical figures are rejected by many subjects; symmetry supplies part of 
the necessary artistic composition. It has a disadvantage in that it tends to 
make the answers somewhat stereotyped. On the other hand, symmetry 
makes conditions the same for right- and left-handed subjects; furthermore, 
it facilitates interpretation in certain inhibited and blocked subjects. Finally, 
symmetry makes possible the interpretation of whole scenes. 

Figures which are asymmetrical and show poor composition could add 
new factors to the results of the experiment but would require testing on 
normal control groups. But the problem cannot be further discussed here. 
The examination of individual sensibility to Composition is a problem in itself. 



16 

The order of the plates within the series Is determined by empirical 
results. This subject is discussed on page 53. 

2. Procedure. 

The subject Is given one plate after the other and asked, What might 
this be? He holds the plate in his hand and may turn it about as much as 
he likes. The subject is free to. hold the plate near his eyes or far away as 
he chooses; however, it should not be viewed from a distance. The length 
of the extended arm is the maximum permissible distance. Care must be 
taken that the subject does not catch a glimpse of the plate from a distance, 
since this would alter the conditions of the experiment. For instance, Plate I 
is frequently interpreted the head of a fox when seen at a distance of 
several meters; at a closer range this answer is almost never given. Once the 
subject has interpreted the plate as the head of a fox it becomes very diffi- 
cult for him to see anything else when it is brought nearer. 

An attempt is made to get at least one answer to every plate, though 
suggestion in any form is, of course, avoided. Answers are taken down as 
long as they are produced by the subject. It has proved unwise to set a fixed 
time for exposure of the card. Coercion should be avoided as much as 
possible. 

Occasionally it becomes necessary to show a suspicious subject how the 
figures are prepared, ad oculos. In general, however, rejection, of the test is 
relatively rare, even among suspicious and inhibited patients. 

3. Interpretation of the Figures as Perception. 

Almost all subjects regard the experiment as a test of imagination. This 
conception is so general that it becomes, practically, a condition of the ex- 
periment. Nevertheless, the interpretation of the figures actually has little 
to do with imagination, and it is unnecessary to consider imagination a pre- 
requisite. It is true, however, that those gifted with imagination react differ- 
ently from those not so gifted. On the other hand, it makes little difference 
whether one encourages the subject to give free rein to his imagination or 
not; the results will be little changed. Those who have imagination show it, 
those who do not have it may apologize for the lack, but the results may be 
compared without taking richness or poverty of imagination into account. 

The interpretation of the chance forms falls in the field of perception 
and apperception rather than imagination. 

Perception arise from the fact that sensations, or groups of sensations, 
ecphorize memory pictures of former groups of sensations within us. This 
produces in us a complex of memories of sensations, the elements of which, 
by virtue of their simultaneous occurrence in former experiences, have a 



_ 17 

particularly fine coherence and are differentiated from other groups of 
sensations. In perception, therefore, we have three processes; sensation, 
memory, aecl association. This identification f a homogeneous group of 
sensations with previously acquired analogous complexes, together with all 
their connections, we designate as apperceptions It also embraces the 
narrower term of perception.* (Bleuler 9 Lehrbiich der Psychiatric, p. 9. 
Verlag Springer, Berlin 1916; Translation from A. A. Brill's Authorized 
English Edition, p. 13.) 

If perception can also be called an associate integration of available 
engrains (memory-pictures) with recent complexes of sensations, then the 
interpretation of chance forms can be called a perception in which the effort 
of integration is so great that it is realized consciously as an effort. This 
intraps2chic B .reaJiKatioxL that the complex of sensations and the engrains are 
not perfectly identical gives the perception the character of an interpretation. 

All answers given by the subjects are not interpretations in this sense, 
however. Most organic cases (aecile-jdements, paretics), epileptics, many 
schizophrenics, most manics, almost all the feebleminded subjects, and even 
many normals are not aware of the assimilative effort. These subjects d not 
interpret the pictures, they name them. They may even be astonished that 
someone else is able to see something different in them. "We deal in these 
cases not with an interpretation but with in the strict sense f 

the word. They are as unconscious of the associative-assimilative perform- 
ance as a normal person is of the process of seeing a familiar face or in per- 
ceiving a tree. From the above discussion, we conclude that there must be 
a kind of threshold beyond which perception (assimilation without conscious- 
ness of assimilative effort) becomes interpretation (perception with conscious- 
ness of assimilative effort). This threshold must be very high in cases of 
senile dementia, in manic states, in feeblemindedness, etc. 

Where this threshold is low, it is to be expected that even the simplest, 
most commonplace perception brings with it the consciousness of assimilative 
effort. This is the case in certain pedants who demand an absolutely exact 
correspondence between sensation complex and engrams for their percep- 
tions. It is even more apparent in some depressed subjects. Here the 
assimilative effort may have become so great that it can no longer be over- 
come and everything they perceive seems changed and strange. Pedantic 
and depressed subjects show just this in the test; they search for those details 
in the figures that happen to have distinct counterparts in nature, frequently 
going on to say: I know that I am interpreting and that actually it must be 
something else. 

Normal subjects frequently speak of the interpretation of the figures 
spontaneously. 

Cases showing congenital or acquired defects of intelligence want to 
recognize the pictures. 

Rorschach, Psychodiagnostics. 2 



_ 18 

These different ways of handling the figures indicate that the difference 
between interpretation and perception lies in associative factors. Further- 
more t reactions of subjects in elated moods show more of a perceptive cha- 
racter^ while in depressed moods the reaction is more interpretative. Finally, 
it is apparent that the difference cannot be said to be doe only to associative 
processes; emotional factors may also shift the boundary between perception 
interpretation. 

la summary, we may conclude that the differences between perception 
and interpretation are dependent on individual factors, not on general 
ones; that there is no sharp delineation, but a gradual shifting of emphasis; 
and that interpretation may be called a special kind of perception. There 
is, therefore, no doubt that this experiment can be called a test of the per- 
ceptive power of the subject. 

The significance of the imagination in interpreting the figures is dis- 
cussed on page 102. 



H. THE FACTORS OF THE EXPERIMENT. 

I. of 

In scoring the answers given by subject* the content is last. 

It is more important to study the function of perception md apperception. 
The experiment depends primarily on the pattern *, 

Protocols of the experiment are examined according to the following 
scheme: 

1. How many responses are there? What is the reaction time? How 
frequently is refusal to answer encountered for the several plates? 

2. Is the answer determined only by the form of the blot, or is there 
also appreciation of movement or color? 

3. Is the figure conceived and interpreted as a whole or in parts? Which 
are the parts interpreted? 

4. What does the subject see? 

Other questions arise in connection with 2, 3 and 4 above, and will he dis- 
cussed later. 

The conclusions in this work are based on experimental observations 
which have been obtained with tbe series of plates accompanying this book* 
The following table gives a summary of the material collected: 





Male 


Female 


Total 


Normal, educated .... 


35 


20 


55 


Normal, uneducated . . . 


20 


42 


62 


Psychopathic personality 


12 


8 


20 


Alcoholic cases .... 


8 





8 


Morons, Imbeciles .... 


10 


2 


12 


Schizophrenics 


105 


83 


188 


Manic-depressives .... 


4 


10 


14 


Epileptics 


17 


3 


20 


Paretics ....... 


7 


1 


8 


Senile dements 


7 


3 


10 


Arteriosclerotic dements 


3 


2 


5 


Korsakoff and similar states 


3 





3 



Total 231 174 405 



1 German = Formale. 



In addition to this^ many experiments have been conducted using earlier, 
but now discarded, figures. These cannot be considered here because com- 
parative scoring is possible only when observations are obtained with the 
same series of plates, or with a parallel series (see page 52). 

The totals indicated above are far too small, especially in the groups of 
uneducated normals and the common psychoses. The small number of the 
common psychoses studied is partly due to the fact that an institution serving 
a country canton offers little variety of material. Before the printing of the 
plates the number of experiments was limited because the figures were 
damaged by passing through hundreds of hands *. 

1 Since the material which appears in this publication is intended for a wide circle of 
readers, I am adding, for the sake of clarity, descriptions of the more or less well known 
psychoses. 

Schizophrenia (Kraepelin's Dementia Praecox) is the most prevalent mental disease. 
Two-thirds of the patients in most institutions are schizophrenic. Bleuler considers the 
basic symptom a disturbance of associations: di&solution of the normal thought combinations, 
btrange mental processes, the connection and condensation of the irrelevant, the splitting 
of valid relationships, absurd generalizations, the use of symbols in the place of the original 
concept, the incapability of thinking with a purpose. The result of this is scattering and 
disunion of many associative processes on the one hand; on the other, of perseveration, that 
is a constant sticking to the same mental processes; flight of ideas in the first case, paucity 
of ideas in the *>ecoud* Furthermore, a striking symptom of schizophrenia is the defect in 
the ability to modulate the emotions, the emotional rigidity, the loss of emotional rapport. 
In severe cases this increases to emotional dementia, to an apparent lack of emotions. 
Hallucinations, delusions, absurd movements, actions and mannerisms, etc., may occur as 
accessory symptoms. The accessory symptoms may become the prominent features of the 
disease in home cases. 

Schizophrenia has four sub-varieties which in themselves do not form exclusive aspects 
of the disease but interchange and overlap in the same patient. 

1. Paranoid: Delusions and hallucinations prominent. Most superiority and persecution 
complexes fall in this group. 

2. Catatonic: Catatonic symptoms predominant: absurd movements, posturing, man- 
nerisms, negativism (characterized by doing the opposite of what is expected, fre- 
quently the opposite of what is desired), impulsiveness. The schizophrenic autism 
of Bleuler is particularly evident in this group, the shutting out of all contact with 
the outside world. In addition, hallucinations and delusions are frequently seen. 

3. Hebephreric: Schizophrenics with accessory symptoms of all sorts, often showing 
motor excitement. Cases which cannot be classified as paranoid or catatonic are 
generally included here. 

4. Simple dementing form (Schizophrenia simplex): Schizophrenia the course of which 
is gradual and slow with especially marked emotional dementia, and without 
accessory symptoms. 

Manic-depressive Insanity includes depressive and manic states as outstandingly con- 
trasting symptom complexes. 

1. Depression: characterized by depressed mood, slowing of thinking, inhibition of the 
centrifugal functions of decision, of action, and the psychic component of motility. 

2. Manic States: characterized by elated mood, flight of ideas, the urge to be active 
and to talk, abnormal facilitation and acceleration of those centrifugal functions 
which are inhibited in depression. 



21 

2. Number of Responses. 

Normal subjects generally give from 15 to 30 responses, rarely less than 
IS, often more than 30. The number depends principally on emotional rather 
than on associative factors. Depressed, sullen or unobliging subjects often 
give less than the average number of answers. Subjects ambitious to give 
answers of the highest quality occasionally choose to give but ten excellent 
interpretations, and consequently fall below the average number. Subjects in 
a happy frame of mind, those in a good humor, those who enjoy phantasy, 
and subjects who are especially interested, give a larger number of inter- 
pretations than the average, as do subjects who are anxious to do well, the 
model pupils and those of similar personality make-up. 

For different reasons feeble-minded subjects and epileptics almost always 
show a larger number of v ans^ers than the average; this is largely because 
they enjoy performing a task that appears easy. The number of responses 
given by organic cases is usually within the average range, usually toward 
the lower border, except in the case of the confabulators, the Korsakoffs 
and paretics, where the number may be much higher than average. Manics 
usually give a few more than the average number of answers while in 
depressed subjects the number is usually within the normal range. 

The number of answers is very inconstant in schizophrenic subjects. In- 
hibited cases often give less than ten; indolent cases settle the matter with 
ten mediocre answers. The better preserved 1 cases, as well as others, are 
frequently within the normal range; however, many also give high numbers 
of answers. Some cases which appear to be totally demented, having been 
psychotic for decades, produce surprisingly numerous and varied responses. 

As may be seen, the study of the number of answers reveals nothing 
characteristic in the different groups of cases. 

3. Reaction Time. 

As a rule, 20 to 30 minutes are required to complete the experiment. If 
20 answers are obtained in 30 minutes, the average reaction time is 1.5 mi- 
nutes. Obviously, this is not an exact reaction time; in the strict sense, 
fraction time could be obtained only by means of a series of control ex- 

Korsakoff Psychosis: Psychosis due to alcoholism usually beginning with delirium tre- 
mens, characterized by marked memory deficit. The patient attempts to cover up the de- 
fect even to himself by confabulation of all sorts of experiences to fill the gaps. 

Organic Psychoses: Those mental illnesses which are due to a diffuse reduction of 
brain substance. This groupe includes the Korsakoff Psychosis mentioned above, senile 
dementia (dementia of old age), arteriosclerotic dementia, and paresis. 

(All after Bleuler, Lehrbuch der Psychiatric, Berlin, 1916.) 

1 German ^ Geordnete. 



22 

periments. It goes without saying that the reaction time is greater in epilep- 
tic, organic, and depressed cases than it is in mantes. 

The reaction time in schizophrenic subjects is notably shorter than in all 
other groups. Including normals. Some scattered 1 schizophrenics find four 
or more interpretations for the same picture in perhaps five seconds. The 
more scattered the patient, the shorter the reaction time, provided he has 
been able to focus his attention on the test. 

4. to Answer. 

Normal subjects almost never fail to give a response for the several plates. 
Occasionally neurotic subjects fail to answer; this is caused by Inhibitions 
due to complexes. Feebleminded hysterical subjects often reject the figures 
because they are afraid they will give stupid answers; we deal with an 
^Intelligence complex . Failure frequently occurs In a typical manner in 
schizophrenics, even in latent or practically recovered cases; they suddenly 
refuse to answer, even though they have been giving many and good responses 
all along. The refusal may come with figures not ordinarily considered dif- 
ficult. The blocking may be insurmountable although In all other kinds of 
cases an answer may be obtained on coaxing. 

5. Form, Movement and Color Responses: Their Relation 
to the Perceptive Process. 

Most Interpretations are determined by the form of the blot alone, both 
In normal and abnormal subjects. The subject searches among his visual 
memories for that one which in form, especially In outline, most closely 
resembles the entire figure or one of Its details. In accomplishing this, he 
does not "Visualize the object <<seen as moving, but as a fixed form. Such 
be designated hereafter as F. 

In contrast toTESe, we have Movement and Color responses. The 

M, are those interpretations in which it 
can be established that kinaestketlc engrams (visual memories of movements 
observed, im&gw&d-j*^^^^ have had a determining influence 

In addition to the consciousness of the form o |he blot. The subject Imagines 
the*S5^^*^^OT^^m?ving. Color responses, c^signated C, are those Inter- 
pretations In which it can be established that the color as well as the form, 
or the color alone, of the figure has determined the answer. The frequency 
with which these three types of answers occur, and especially their relative 
proportions to each other are very important. They show characteristic, 
typical variations which are significant in normals as well as in the various 
Illnesses. 

1 German = Zerfahren. 



23 
a) Form Responses (P). 

Most Interpretations are determined by the form of the Is the 

case generally as well as in each individual test. The of form 

responses thus becomes a significant problem; in order to avoid subjective 
evaluation statistical methods were used. Form by a 

number of normal subjects (100) were as the norm and From this 

a definite range of normal form visualization could be defined, and a 
number of frequently recurring answers were collected. These were called 
gdod (F+). In this process* many forms which woeld not, on 

jective estimation, have been called good, were so designated Those answers 
which are better than these, are called F+ also; those which are less clear 
are F . Even though the normal range is statistically fixed, judgment of 
what is better or worse than the good normal response remains a matter for 
subjective evaluation to a certain extent. However, this evaluation can be 
made with relative certainty. The form answers having evaluated, 5 /i 

more or less F+ should not be considered significant in calculating the F+ 
percentage, since the evaluation Is purely empirical and not absolutely ob- 
jective. Nevertheless, the F+ percentage provides useful leads In the study. 

Table I is a summary of the empirical relationships found in the cases. 
Only rough averages are given. Naturally, the perception of form fay a 
schizophrenic depends on what It was before he became 111. Furthermore, 
the adjective ^intelligent* is used loosely; as is demonstrated below 7 however, 
the test is capable of evaluating the Individual components of what is called 
Intelligences One of, these components Is sharpness of form visualization* 
The Table requires no special comment except to call attention to a few 
points. It Is noteworthy that depression improves the sharpness of form 
visualization, while elation dulls It. Certain groupings already seen earlier 
In the study are repeated In the table. Those subjects who were most con- 
scious of the assimilative effort in interpreting, namely the pedants and mild 
and severe depressions, are all to be found in the group which saw forms 
most clearly (see page 17). Onjthe other hand, those whose Interpretations 
were simply perceptions occupy the lower half of the table; these are the 
manics, the epileptics, the feebleminded, and the organic cases. Thus, acute- 
ness in thg^pexceptioiL of objects and a marked consciousness of assimilative 
effort in the experiment are seen to go hand In hand; the converse of this 
statement Is also true, tha|_lajck .of^acuity in the perception of objects goes 
with freedom from a sense of effort In the test. Protatly only in schizo- 
phrenics can this relationship be disturbed. 



_ 24 



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Schizophrenic 


Apparently well 
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cases, latent 
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well preserved 


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Very scattered, 
originally morons 


Originally morons, 
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25 

b) Movement Responses 

Movement Responses are those interpretations which are determined by 
form perceptions pirns kinaesfhetic factors. The subject the object 

Interpreted to be in motion. For instance, in Plate I he sees two with 

fluttering wings; in Plate II, two carnival clowns with other, 

their knees bent; in Plate III, two waiters bowing to each other, etc. Fre- 
quently the gestures of the subject during the test will Indicate whether or 
not kinaesthetie influences are in play. He makes the movements which he 
is interpreting or indicates them by involuntary Innervations. 

One should not be misled, however, into considering each movement 
described or even demonstrated by the subject as indicating that the answer 
is kinaesthetically determined. There are subjects who indicate not a few 
animated objects but whose answers, nevertheless, may not be considered as 
determined by movement. Responses such as a duck going into the water, 
a dog snapping at a butterfly, a bird in flights, an airplane in fligltt, 
a volcano in eruption, etc., are not M answers in many cases. These are 
form answers, determined by the form alone, and the indication of motion 
is often only a rhetorical embellishment of the answer, a secondary associa- 
tion. This may be the case even if the movement is demonstrated in some 
way. We deal here not with movement sensed in the figure, but with an 
association of the movement designated. A point which will be intelligible 
only after further elaboration must be mentioned here. The motility 
observed in a subject is not a measure of the kinaesthetic influences playing 
upon him while interpreting the figures. On the contrary, the individual who is 
influenced by kinaesthetie factors in the test is stable in his general motility; 
the energetic person is influenced little by a sense of movement in the figures. 
Such empirical results of the experiment can be reproduced at any time, 
though they lack theoretical foundation. 

The following may be taken as a rule: answers may be considered as kin- 
aesthetically determined practically only when human beings or animals 
capable of motion similar to that of human beings (monkeys, bears) are seen 
in the figures. 

Interpretations involving human beings are not always M answers. The 
question always is, does the movement indicated play a primary role in the 
determination of the answer? Do we deal with an actual sensation of motion, 
or simply the conception of a form that is secondarily interpreted as moving? 
Plate III is important for this consideration. It is usually interpreted as 
Two waiters carrying a champagne bucket, or something similar. In this 
interpretation the black fish-shaped forms below and laterally are thought of 
as the legs of the waiters, and the legs are, as may be seen, separated from 
the body. Primary kinaesthetie factors are very probably necessary to make 
it possible for the subject to overlook this separation. Such answers are, then, 



26 

to be considered as kinaesthetically determined. To be sure, very many sub- 
jects will give the answer two raen>, but they do not indicate the fish-like 
figures as the legs, but tend rather 10 point out the arms of the waiters 
carrying the champagne bucket. These subjects are interpreting primarily 
by form alone; they perceive the heads and necks of the men, and fabricate 
the rest without the participation of kinaesthesias. 

Other subjects frequently answer, <ca sketch of men, or caricatures . 
Such answers are almost never M's. Skeletons is the answer given by 
others; this also is not an II answer according to my experience. 

Sometimes it is difficult t determine whether an answer is F or M. In- 
telligent subjects can generally say with reasonable certainty whether or not 
kinaestiietic factors have contributed to the response; one should wait 
until after the completion of the test before asking the question, however; 
otherwise attention is drawn to kinaesthetic factors too strongly. Occasionally 
unintelligent subjects and patients will give clues on careful questioning. In 
other cases, comparison of the interpretation under question with answers 
clearly F or If will make differentiation possible, (An M answer, the designa- 
tion of which is definitely established, is compared with the interpretation in 
question, and the same procedure is carried through with an F answer.) There 
are some subjects who can perceive movement not only in human figures and 
animals with certain human characteristics but in all kinds of animals, plants, 
geometric figures, and even in single lines. In snch cases the differentiation 
is usually not difficult, however, for the subjects are nearly always good at 
self-obaervation and can give the necessary information. 

The experience and practice of the examiner using the same series of 
test blots counts heavily in scoring the M answers. Apparently the speed and 
certainty with which experience is acquired varies widely from individual 
to individual. If the observer himself has a personality too inclined to make 
kinaesthetic interpretations or lies at the opposite extreme, it will be diffi- 
cult for him to judge properly. At any rate, the scoring of the M answers is 
the thorniest problem in the entire experiment. The personal equation of 
the observer, dependent upon his imagery-type, can warp the results most 
easily here. Some statistical method might be introduced to avoid false sub- 
jective conclusions based on analogies. If there be too much schematization, 
however, many correct subjective conclusions will be stifled at the start. 

There are considerable differences in the number of M answers given, in 
normals as well as in patients. The number ranges between and 15, is rarely 
higher. See Table II 

Table II is a rough compilation which nevertheless allows certain conclu- 
sions to be drawn. In normals, the number of M responses rises in proportion 
to the productivity of the intelligence^ the wealth of associations, the 
capacity to form new associative patterns. Stereotyped and feebleminded 
subjects have no MV The rule is the same for schizophrenics; the more pro- 



27 

ductive the associative life of the the M's; the 

typed the thinking, the fewer M answers, 
mood decreases the number of M's, so in 

are no M answers. In in a a M's ap- 

pear; in psychogenic depressions, the 

M's occur in liypomaaics in maaics, but in the of 

organic cases, there is little or no increase, 
jecis are **gaiH found together, showing few or no M's* 

The results with epileptics are extraordinary. The of 

show the highest number of M answers, in the de- 

mentia has developed slowly, over the course of the 

least. 

Comparison of tables I and II shows a few clear relationships,. In 
the number of M's is, in general, clearly proportional to the of form 

visualization. Pedants and depressed subjects do not to pro- 

portion; they can combine the most acute clarity of form with 

no M's at all. No definite ^conclusions be drawn from the rough compila- 
tion in the case of schizophrenics, this would be possible if indi- 
vidual symptoms were the basis of comparison. a study would go 
beyond the plan of this treatise* In organic cases, the results are identical 
with the normals; the poorer the forms, the fewer the Ill's. The fact that 
arteriosclerotic patients do not react as do the normals in this respect is due 
to emotional factors. 

The normal relation, i.e., the better the forms, the more M's, is entirely 
inverted in all cases in which there is mood disturbance. In elated or de- 
pressed moods of normals, in and in 
depressions, the proportion reads, the better the form, the fewer the M's. 
The reverse of this is also true in these cases; the poorer the forms, the more 
M's. Epiteptibs*^^ also. 

The answers determined by kinaesthetic factors can, as was the case in 
the form answers, be divided into good and poor M's (M+ and M ). Those 
answers which correspond poorly to the form of the figure are to be con- 
sidered M . Many of these M answers occer in the protocols of manies 
and epileptics but are rare in schizophrenics. A few M answers may occur 
in elated normals and in subjects with Korsakoff s psychosis. M. answers 
are practically impossible is^n^jnaLt^si^ may occur 

in a normal subject who knows the test and is ambitious to produce as many 
M's as possible; this ambition is betrayed by a few M responses. 

The movement answers are further divided into primary and secondary. 
In most M answers it appears that the form and kinaesthetic engrams have 
mixed very rapidly in the assimilative process, so that the form and motion 
of the objects seem to reach perception simultaneously (primary M). In other 
cases, it appears that first the form and later the motion of the figure reaches 



28 



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Most 
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Most productive 
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Inhibited catatonics. 
Productive paranoids. 

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Unproductive 
catatonics + hebe- 
phrenics. Depressive. 


With simple dementia. 
Stereotyped. Some 
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29 

perception (secondary M). For example, an epileptic may see a 
In Plate III and begin to maneuver Ms body, bending 
Ms position conforms to the lines of the figure. Then he his 

it may be well or poorly visualized. 

Is this reaction in epileptics different from of of an 

inherent slowness of associative processes in epilepsy? Manies show the 
sort of reaction, but with much greater rapidity. They, too, may give well 
or poorly visualized M answers. In the manic there Is no slowing of the 
associative process to account for this, so that It must be concluded 
there are other factors at work. Suffice It to say that there are differences 
which must be examined more fully, and will be expressed In terms of 
primary and secondary M answers for the present. 

Frequently the responses of morons and delirious patients are similar to 
these secondary M's. They often describe movements that they simply 
imagine, and the forms they use do not correspond to any part of the figure. 
Subjects of these groups may see a human head and then imagine a body, 
or even a whole story fell of movements. Such answers are not to be con- 
sidered as M's, but as Fs, or entirely separately, as confabulatory F H*s. 

In conclusion, it Is instructive to examine the movement answers, espe- 
cially In normals, to see whether they Indicate flexion or extension. Subjects 
who usually see extension movements are fundamentally different from those 
who see only bent, burdened or twisted figures. In Plate V, held vertically^ 
one of the first type saw a danseuse stretching herself upwards and back- 
wards, making passionate movements, while one of the second type saw a 
bent old woman carrying two umbrellas under her arm. Subjects who see 
extension movements are active individuals with strong drive toward self- 
assertion, though they often show neurotic inhibitions. Those who see flexion 
movements are passive, resigned, neurasthenic individuals. Control experi- 
ments made with plates selected so that extension and flexion movements 
could be perceived with equal ease would be helpful In this case. 

c) Color Responses (C). 

On examination of the Influence of color on the interpretations, various 
possibilities are apparent. These are: 

1. The interpretation is based primarily on the form but Is also influenced 
significantly by the color. Such an interpretation is designated FC, form-color 
answer. Examples are: The brown parts of Plate IX interpreted as deer, 
the blue rectangles in Plate VIII as flags, the medial green figures in 
Plate X as caterpillars. 

2. The interpretation is primarily deteririned by the color of the blot, 
but the form is not entirely disregarded. This is called a CF color-form 
answer. Examples: The blue rectangles in Plate VIII as blocks of ice, 



30 

Plate IX (the red up) as a bouquet of flowers , Plate X as a modernistic 
fly-leaf * 

3. The Interpretation is determined by the color of the figure alone with- 
out any significant consideration of form. Such an answer is called a primary 
color answer and designated C. (The fact that the sign C indicates both 
color answers generally and primary color answers is of no practical im- 
portance.) Examples of primary color answers: the blue rectangles of Plate 
"VIII as the sky or as forget-me-nots, the green of Plate IX as Russia 
(Russia usually being colored green in maps), in Plate X, the large red figures 
as roses or <crosewater. 

The differentiation of the three groups of color answers is quite important, 
and frequently assignment to one or the other group is open to question. 
Naturally, the primary color answers, those which completely neglect the 
form, are the easiest to recognize. The other two groups can usually be dif- 
ferentiated from pure form answers by asking whether the interpretation 
would have been the same if the figure had been black. The question may 
be answered by the subject, or by the examiner, using other answers given 
by the subject for comparison. In time a statistical method may be evolved 
on the basis of the frequency of those answers which allow positive de- 
signation. 

If the subject cannot settle whether an answer is FC or CF, comparison 
with the clarity of form vision when interpreting black figures is helpful. If 
the clarity of form visualization in the color answers is less acute than when 
the subject interprets black blots, it is probable that we deal with a CF rather 
than an FC. It is also true that cases which give primary color answers 
usually give CF's as well. Experience with as many different types of sub- 
jects as possible facilitates the scoring* 

Epileptics, especially deteriorated cases, show an almost specific type of 
color answer. They simply name the colors, black and red or blue and 
red, as the case may be. One such case called Plate X simply a motley of 
colors. Very occasionally a scattered schizophrenic will react in the same 
way. Answers in which black and white are spoken of as colors must be 
noted separately. They are equivalent to the other color answers only when 
they occur in epileptics and in some completely scattered schizophrenics. 
When scored as color answers in diagnostic control experiments they proved 
to be a source of error. Whether they have any specific significance has not 
yet been shown. 

The number of color answers of all types varies widely in normals as well 
as in patients. Because of this, Table III is even more crude in its summation 
of results than has been the case for the preceding tables, and it indicates 
only the most generally significant results for the different groups of cases. 
The table shows that all cases where depressed mood is a factor are in the 
group with few color answers, while those with elated moods fall in the group 



31 

with numerous color answers. Few color are 

subjects, whether they be manic-depressive, 0r 

genie depressions. Color an in the of 

manics subjects in elated moods. Furthermore, it is 

characterized by stable emotions fern or no color 

pedantic subjects, indolent or stereotyped old 

typed schizophrenics, and simplex types, give few or no color Sa&~ 

ec$ characterized by affective lability color In 

group are found the subjects in elated moods, 4cneurotic 
morons and imbeciles, scattered schizophrenics, epileptics, 
the manics. 

Comparison between Tables I and III shows almost complete parallelism. 
This ^mofe^stab^ib^^ emotions, the better the form visualization; the more 
labile the emotions, the more inexact the form visualization. This parallel 
relationship ^breaks, jdoim.only IB the of a single group of normals, the 

neurotics and artists. This group does combine good form visualization with 
unstable emotional tone. Occasionally schizophrenics, especially productive 
paranoids, react similarly. 

.- The relationship between movement and color answers will be discussed 
more fully later, but a superficial comparison of Tables II and HI shows cer- 
tain facts. There is a direct proportion between the number of M and C res- 
ponses in epileptics and manic-depressives, that is, there are either many of 
both M and C answers, or none of either kind. In feebleminded and hebe- 
phrenic subjects, the proportion is inverse, that is, there are many C with 
no M answers. The remaining inverse proportion, many M but no C answers, 
is found in the psychogenic depressions and in paranoics. There is a certain 
similarity of reaction between normals and the majority of schizophrenics as 
shown by the tables, though this similarity does not hold in all cases. This 
material will he taken up again later. 

The three categories of color answers must be discussed separately. 
Primary color answers, C's, are missing in the upper part of the table. These 
answers are absent in all normal subjects and in patients who are emotionally 
stable, be they depressed, emotionally stereotyped, emotionally impoverished 
and outwardly calm, or more or less well preserved. C answers are seen, 
first, in the irritable and sensitive, and increase in number in manics where 
irritability and instability are features. Irritable and impulsive patients show 
large numbers of C's as does the group of schizophrenics which shows the 
most emotional and associative scattering; epileptics, also impulsive and 
irritable, fall into this class. ^^^.**^^^ 8 ^" r '" w *" ' 

From this summary it can be deduced that th^pnmarg C answers are 
the representatives of impulsiveness. The more C's, the greater the tend- 
ency to imputltvin^^ the deductions of this section are based 



32 













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With simple demen 
Stereotyped. Ctpa 
of rapport. 


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capable of rappoi 
Depressive. 


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of rapport, 
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Unstable. Irritabl 


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Most scattered 
hebephrenics 
and catatonics. 


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Normal 


Pedantic. Indolent. 
With normal 
depressive mood. 


Most common 
normal values 


Irritable. Sensitive. 


Hypomanic mood. 
Good humored 
Impulsive neurotics. 


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33 

on statistical methods. As many protocols as possible from as widely diversi- 
fied clinical material as available were obtained the 
according to the individual factors (C, M, FC, etc.). Thus it was discovered 
that those subjects giving the most primary color answers were exclusively 
epileptics, manics, imbeciles, paretics, scattered schizophrenics, or notoriously 
hot-headed and hyper-aggressive and irresponsible ' normals.)* From it 
was concluded that C answers have a symptom valuer, is they repre- 
sent the common trait of all these cases, namely, the tendency to impulsive 
emotional discharge. 

The sources of error of such a method were compensated as far as possible 
by the following means: 

1. Comparison of the clinical symptoms in the respective psychoses "with 
the conduct of the normals concerned. This is done by statistical study and 
consideration of etiological factors. 

2. Statistical and etiological comparison of the assumed ^symptom value 
of a factor with that of a related factor similarly established (e. g. compa- 
rison between C and CF). 

3. Examination of the diagnostic value of the respective symptoms. As an 
example of this method, the diagnostician would attempt to read records of 
unknown subjects on the basis of the C answers. 

CF answers prove to be analogous to pure C answers, but occur in a 
larger number of subjects. CF's are almost always found when C's are given, 
but the inverse of this does not hold. CF answers are frequently found in 
normals whereas Cs are not. CF's are more frequent in women than in men. 
They have proved to be the representatives of emotional instability, irrit- 
ability, sensitivity and suggestibility. 

The form-color answers, FC, are proportional neither to the C or to the 
CF answers. FC's are most common in normals and slightly less frequent in 
raanics and epileptics, though in the latter they are accompanied by CF and 
C answers. The number of FC's shows wide individual variation. From studies 
as indicated above, it was found that FC answers may be regarded as repre- 
sentative of that emotional instability biologically necessary and basic for 
the ability to achieve emotional rapport and to make emotional approach to 
the environment. The C and CF answers express the more egocentric affec- 
tive responsiveness, while the more adaptive affective responsiveness is ex- 
pressed in the number of FC's. Completely stabilized subjects, the depressed, 
the indolent and the pedantic, show no C, CF or FC answers whatever. 

Several spheres of psychic function must combine in the form-color an- 
swers which take up the form first and then the color. In the interpretation 
of form, associative factors come into play; in the interpretation of color, 
emotional factors are influential. The form-color answer is, therefore, an 
associative as well as an emotional response; it is an assimilation of external 
stimuli. It also proves to be an expression of the capacity for getting into 

Rorschach, Psychodiagnostics. * 



34 

rapport, of the ability to adapt, and this can be shown by either the statist- 
ical or the etiological method of study. 

A better way of saying this is that the FC answer is the expression of the 
desire to adapt, for the FC may be poorly visualized. This would mean that 
only the emotional adaption was effective, the associative being insufficient. 
The poorer the visualization of form in the FC answer, the nearer it ap- 
proaches the CF group, and, thereby, the appearance of egocentric emotional 
responsiveness. Egocentric affectivity may show a definite will to emotional 
adaptability)), but the associative component is insufficient, so that the affect- 
ivity usually, perhaps always, becomes egocentric. 

These conclusions must be subjected to corroboration by the means noted 
above. Many FC answers are given by normal, epileptic and manic subjects. 
In normals the form visualization is good, in manics and epileptics unclear. 
The conclusion from this is that only normals can make entirely satisfactory 
adaptions, adaptions satisfactory in both associative and affective spheres. In 
manics and epileptics the adaption would be frustrated by the fact that no 
matter how strong the will to emotional adaption might be, the associative 
component could not produce it. This is the case in fact. When a normal 
person wishes to make a gift to me, he will look for something / would like; 
on the othej^han^^^na^^^^cgives a gift, he gives something he likes. 
When a normal person says someihmgTne tries to^aSjusFTPfo'Otrr interest; 
a manic graciously tells things that interest only Mm. Both of these examples 
appear egocentric because they both lack the right associative adaption. 

The form-color should be separated from the color-form answers as clearly 
as possible in order to differentiate this apparent affective egocentricity con- 
ditioned by the failure of the associative component from actual egocentri- 
city. Form-color answers are lo be considered representative of the capability 
for rapport when the form of the answer is clearly visualized. 

The logical conclusion to be drawn from this discussion is that the rela- 
tionship of the three types of color answers in a given protocol is significant. 
FC (capability for formation of rapport), CF (affective lability), and C (im- 
pulsiveness) may be united in widely varying proportions. These variations 
are great even within the range of normal. 3 FC, 1 CF, and C are probably 
the most usual values. Male subjects show fewer color answers than female, 
corresponding to the greater ejm^Jtw^ greater 

the prepon4eee-^ "' over CF's the more stable is the affect and the 
greater is the adaptability and the capacity for the formation of rapport. 
The closer the number of CF's comes to the number of FC's, the greater the 
moodiness, instability and egocentricity of the subject. Table III shows 
clearly that this holds in the psychoses as well. 

The complete affect-picture is, furthermore, dependent on, the number 
of M answers. Just as the CF a^B^e^s-^'StaMfeed w bj"-M'' Targe number of 
FC's, the sum of all the color answers, representing the total affectivity, is 



35 

stabilized by the M answers when these occur In greater number the 

Cs. To the same extent that the number of M's preponderates over the num- 
ber of C*s, Is It certain that the affective tonas of the subject Is stable, be 
he normal, neurotic or psychotic. The less the number of M\ that is, the 
greater the preponderance of CTs over MX the more affective lability is in 
evidence. 

Finally, It has proved practical to consider the unit M balanced by the 
unit CF. This can easily be justified theoretically, since In both CF and M 
the form Is considered. FC was scored as one-half, and primary C answers 
as one and one-half M-balancing units. Though this method of computation 
Is quite artificial, It has, nevertheless, proved to be very useful. 

A phenomenon encountered frequently In connection with the color an^ 
swers must be mentioned. Some subjects experience an unmistakable shock, 
an emotional and associative stupor of varying length, when the colored Plate 
VIII appears after the preceding black ones. These subjects suddenly become 
helpless though previously they had been Interpreting very well. They find 
the colored plates more difficult to Interpret than the black plates, and they 
react with astonishment or vexation. Such subjects are always emotion- 
repressors, neurotics of varying grades of severity. ^^Bnwtion-cont rollers 
show the phenomenon to a lesser extent, not showing shoclTTHit^seaHt pro- 
duction with the colored plates. Subjects who are timid in showing their 
emotions are found between these two groups; Interpretations of the colored 
plates occasionally become hasty and more fantastic after an initial indica- 
tion of helplessness before the problem, Emotion-controlIers show a pre- 
ference for the blue and green figures which is peculiar to this group, and 
they avoid the red in a striking way. 

The expression color shock best sums up these phenomena. The pre- 
sence of them reaffirms the internal relationship which must exist between 
color perception and the dynamics of affectivity. 

d) Incidence of M and C In the Same Interpretation. 

Now and then interpretations are seen which appear to be conditioned 
both by kinaesthesias and color, either with or without consideration of form. 
These occur quite rarely. It usually happens that most answers which appear 
to be in this group at first glance, show, upon closer examination, that either 
M was primary and C secondary, or vice versa. In Plate IX, for example, a 
subject may say, Two dwarfs fencing (upper brown) and later add, Yesur 
they are brown like dwarfs. jLn^ther'Strbieet i iateff|>Fete'>tl targcTred figures 
In Plate X as cardinal purple, and later sees two cardinals walking toward 
one another. In the first example the movement was primary; in the second, 
the color. 

Those rare answers in which movement and color appear to influence the 
answer simultaneously may be called MCs. Plate X, the whole interpreted, 



36 

ExpressIonIstic picture of a country fair, and plate IX, as Witches' Sab- 
bath, are examples of the type. Such answers are given by very talented 
subjects, especially painters, more rarely by subjects in euphoric mood, and 
finally by catatonic schizophrenics. These same subjects will be found asso- 
ciated again later on, but in a different connection; it is these in which a 
large number of M answers appear with an equal or almost equal number 
of Cs. 

In schizophrenics interpretations may be influenced by very absurd fac- 
tors as well as form, movement and color. Such factors as the number of 
items is one of these; any two symmetrical blots may be called father and 
mother, or any three blots, the three confeclerates.A>sz*fr*O72 may influence 
the interpretation; a point in the middle of the plate may be called the 
abdomen. A negaiivistic catatonic may simply call the plate a rectangle, not 
seeing the figures at all, but only the form of the card itself. He may even 
look around the figure and say, There is nothing next to it. 

6. Mode of Apperception of the Figures, 
a) Statement of Problems. 

The third question on Page 19 reads: Is the figure conceived and inter- 
preted as a whole or in parts? Which are the parts interpreted? A few 
other questions may be added here. 

The normal subject goes at the experiment in somewhat the following 
manner. He first tries to interpret a given plate as a whole, searching his 
store of visual memories for something which coincides as far as possible 
with the entire figure on the plate. If his search is successful, we have a Whole 
Answer, hereafter designated as W. This done, he goes on to the separate 
parts of the figure. He keeps to those parts which are most prominent be- 
cause of their arrangement. We then have one or more Detail Answers.) 
(D). When the most striking details are exhausted, he goes on to the small- 
est details of the figure and gives, perhaps, one or more interpretations of 
these Small Detail Answers (Dd). The next figure is treated in the same 
way and the sequence W-D-Dd is repeated, and so on through the entire 
series as regularly as possible, A normal subject interpreting the plates in 
this schematic manner would give, perhaps, ten whole answers, twenty detail 
answers, and thirty small detail answers; a total of about sixty interpreta- 
tions. Every plate would be conceived in the sequence W-D-Dd. 

If there were a subject who would react exactly in this way, he would be 
so normal that he could no longer be considered normal at all in any pract- 
ical sense. Among my many subjects not one has reacted in this noraiab 
manner. It is possible that some day such a subject will turn up. Basing my 
conclusions on observations of subjects most closely approaching the ficti- 



tious v normal , thi* man would have a psychological make-up some thins; like 
this:- He \\ould he a kuou all, have a large ;4ore of available associa- 
tions, and motile! show a logic far beyond the range of anything that might 

be called healthy common sense. He would constantly impress one as tyrann- 
ical, grumbling, impatient and pedantic. He would also be very proud of his 

power and stamina of thinking, especially of his logical reasoning ability* but 
he would show no originality of reasoning nor sense for practical things. He 
%ould be original only in Ills desire to know and do everything. He would 

have almost no capacity to form rapport, would be empty of any tempera- 
ment, but foil of self- righteousness and pride. In fine, lie would lie a proud 
but sterile technician of logic and memory. Such would be this norma!<> 
individual. 

Actually the problem is more complicated. There are many associative 
and emotional factors which tend to modify this fictitious normal type. 

Nevertheless, the following questions may be drawn from this schematic 
rase: 

1. How may W, D, apd Dd he determined? 

2. How many W, D and Dd answers are given by the subject? 

3. How strong is the tendency to maintain the normal sequence of W, D, 
Dd? Is the sequence disciplined and orderly or irregular and confused? 

4. What factors determine the relationships indicated under questions 2 
and 3 above? 

b) Scoring the Mode of Apperception. 

The scoring of Whole answers (W) is self-evident. Examples of this type 
of answers are: Plate I interpreted as a butterfly or as two angels giving aid 
to a woman; Plate V, as a bat; and Plate VI as the skin of an animal or a 
leaf; Plate IX (inverted) as a volcano. Further differentiation among the W 
answers is necessary, however, for there are primary and secondary answers 
of this type. The examples given above are of the primary type. The differen- 
tiation can best be explained by comparison of the two types. There are, 
moreover, further differentiations within the secondary whole answers. 

The confabulated whole answer is the most common type of secondary 
W. In this type of answer a single detail, more or less clearly perceived, is 
used as the basis for the interpretation of the whole picture, giving very 
little consideration to the other parts of the figure. For instance, in Plate I, 
the small claw-like figures (medial top) lead many subjects to call the whole 
figure a crayfish.The primary whole answer interprets the figure primarily 
as a whole, using as many and disregarding as few details as possible. Between 
this type and the confabulated secondary W there are many intermediate 
types. When the phenomenon of confabulation is as clear as in the example 
above, it is advisable to score the answer, not W, but DW, DW indicating 



_ 38 

that the Whale Is arrived at from a detail. Naturally the result of DW 
visualization is unclear conception of form. These answers occur in many 
unintelligent normals, in morons, in epileptics, in organic cases, and in schizo- 
phrenics. 

There are, in addition, successme-combinatory answers, also secondary 
Wholes. In these the subject first interprets a few details and then combines 
them into a whole answer. In Plate I, for example, the subject may say* 
Two men (sides) and a woman (middle) , adding, The men are quarreling 
about the woman . 

In contrast to these successive-combinatory answers, there are simul- 
taneous-combihatory Wholes. The latter differ from the former only in the 
greater rapidity of the associative process, and should be added to the primary 
W's in scoring. Plate I interpreted as Two men taking an oath on an altar 
furnishes an example. Both types of answers are characteristic of imaginative 
subjects and are very frequently F+ or M+. Successive-combinatory answers 
of varying degree appear also, of course, in protocols of Korsakoffs, manics, 
etc. 

In the psychoses, confabulatory~combined whole answers are more com- 
mon. These are amalgamations of confabulation and combination in which 
the forms are vaguely seen and the individual objects interpreted are com- 
bined without any real consideration for their relative positions in the pic- 
ture. An example is Plate VIII interpreted as Two bears climbing from a 
rock, over an iceberg, onto a tree trunk. Here the forms are F+, but the 
position of the objects in the picture is neglected. Such answers are fre- 
quently given by unintelligent normal subjects. Confabulating morons, Kor- 
sakoff cases, and delirious patients are able to invent whole stories in this 
way. Less frequently such responses are seen in manics and schizophrenics. 

Contaminated whole answers are found only in schizophrenics. A cata- 
tonic subject sees in Plate IV, The liver of a respectable statesman. This 
response would be incomprehensible had not many other experiments fur- 
nished the key to it. The plate is not infrequently conceived as a degenerated 
organ, perhaps a liver or a heart, but it is also frequently seen as a broad 
man sitting on a column-like stool. The schizophrenic interprets the figure 
twice, once as a liver and once as a man, and then contaminates the two with 
each other, at the same time tossing in the associated ideas, respectable 
and statesman. Schizophrenics give many interpretations in which con- 
fabulation, combination and contamination are mixed in together. Thus, an 
old paranoid catatonic tells the following story in interpreting Plate IX: 
This is Weinfelden (lower red = spilled wine == C answer). It was there I 
was married. At that time the Bodensee reached to Weinfelden. There is the 
Bodensee (greenish-blue = C), and here is the door of the hotel where we 
stayed (indicating a tiny section of the middle line). There were two men 
sitting and drinking wine from a bottle (the brown figures at the top = M), 



_ 30 

and here is the cup from which we drani^ too (the Intermediate figure,, cen- 
ter, between the brown and green) and here Is the wine 
(back to the lower red again). 

Detail answers (D) must be separated from the detail (Dd). 

The differentiation carries with It certain difficulties, bat it is important 
since D is the normal detail. Dd, however, whenever occurring in large num- 
bers, is more or less abnormal. The normal is generally finished with the 
plate when he has given a few D; he rarely goes on to give Dd answers. 

D's are those details which, because of their position in the figure, are 
the most striking. One can define them statistically, as was the case with 
the forms, but the procedure Is unnecessary becaese after the test has been 
given to 50 normals one knows roost of the normal details. The final theo- 
retical differentiation between D and Dd answers rests on factors not yet 
fully studied. The principal research Indicated is examination of the Indi- 
vidual sensitivity to spacial rhythms. It Is certain that factors of this sort 
are effective In the experiment. Certain small details have to be considered 
normal because of the frequency with which they are interpreted; this is 
the case with the black points above the middle white part In Plate II and 
the intermediate figure between the blue squares In Plate 111. Both these 
lie in the midline about the same height on the card. 

The D's are by far the most frequent answers. Primary and secondary 
answers and various classes of the latter may be distinguished among the 
D's as was the case with the W answers, but in practice the differentiation 
has proved superfluous. 

The small-detail answers are those "which remain after the statistically 
common D's are subtracted from the total. Occasionally large parts of the 
figures have to be designated Dd; this is the case where very unusual sec- 
tions of a figure are picked out, or where an ordinary detail Is interpreted 
peculiarly and with unusual associations. However, Dd's are usually the 
smallest details of the picture almost always overlooked by normal subjects. 
Classification of these would add nothing. It is only necessary to do a test 
with a scattered schizophrenic or a notorious grumbler to understand very 
quickly what is meant by a Dd answer. 

There are only two special forms of Dd diagnostically important enough 
to be distinguished and scored separately. These are the intermediate form 
(S) and the oligophrenic detail (Do). 

Intermediate forms (S) are those answers in which the white spaces are 
interpreted rather than the black or colored parts of the figure which sur- 
round them. If there occurs more than one S in a protocol gives reason 
for suspicion. S are most common In stubborn, eccentric normals and 
in negativistic, scattered schizophrenics. They are seen less frequently in 
epileptics, and tend, in this group, to be changed to color-form or form-color 
answers. S answers always indicate some sort of tendency to opposition. 



40 

Oligophrenic (oligophrenic = feebleminded) small detail answers (Do) 
are those interpretations in which only a part of the body is seen by a sub- 
ject, though others see the whole body clearly in the same part of the figure 
in question. In Plate I, for instance, the central figure is frequently called a 
female body; if a subject interprets only hands or legs we deal with Do 
answers. In Plate III the same applies if only heads or legs of the figures 
are pointed out. Do answers are found primarily in morons and imbeciles 
less frequently in anxious r depressed subjects. They are almost invariably 
present in protocols of compulsion neurotics. 

c) Number of W, D, Dd, etc. 

The absolute number of "W* D, and Dd is of less importance than the 
proportions in which they occur. The absolute number is significant only in 
the case of the W answers. Table IV indicates the significance of the num- 
ber of Ws. Counts of four to seven whole answers are by far the most fre- 
quent, both among normals and patients. There is a difference between 
male and female subjects, the average for males being from 5 to 7, for 
females, 4 to 6. Only subjects with great freedom and wealth of associations 
produce more than 7 Ws; intelligent or hypomanic normals, and previously 
intelligent but BOW introspective, withdrawn schizophrenics are found in 
this group. Artists and subjects who enjoy reverie attain the highest number 
of "W answers. Least Ws are produced by feebleminded subjects, depressed 
cases (excepting psychogenic depressions), and, finally, cases of schizophrenia 
showing simple dementia. Elated mood increases, depressed mood decreases 
the number of W answers. 

Comparison of Table IV with those given previously shows that there is 
no definite relationship between F+*Y0 and the number of Ws, or between 
the number of C answers and the number of Ws. Only when dealing with 
mood disturbances is any relationship apparent. Comparison of Tables II and 
IV, however, shows that a direct proportion exists between the number of 
M*s and the number of W's, and that this may be traced throughout the 
tables. 

The number of \} answers shows no significant relationships, and the 
same is the case for Dd, S and Do. It may be noted in the case of the small 
detail answers, however, that the more grumbling and pedantic the subject, 
the more Do in his protocol. The same is true for factors of scattering and 
impulsiveness in schizophrenics. S*s indicate oppositional tendency whether 
they occur in large or small numbers. In normals they indicate argumentative, 
willful, obstinate and querulous types; in schizophrenics they indicate block- 
ing, negatixism and eccentricity. Do answers, when they occur concomitantly 
with better types of answers, indicate inhibition of thought processes condi- 
tioned by depression; this is particularly the case when the visualization of 



_ 41 

forms Is good. Do^s with F a 

dearth of associations (feeblemindedness). 

d) Apperceptive Types 1 . 

A series of apperceptive fee to the 

relationships of W, D, and Dd to each other as they occur in the protocols. 
To do this mathematically would require a of 

1 have available, but even from this relatively the 

rather clearly distinguishable. 

There is, first, a pure W type. Subjects of type go the whole 

experiment giving a round number of ten whole answers, or 
closely. They go on to the details rarely or not^it alt These interpretative 
efforts are artiicial feats ; the ability to make them presumes a considerable 
wealth and availability of engrains, though it rests primarily on emotional 
factors. This pure W type is usually seen in intelligent subjects, who do not 
take the experiment as a test of imagination*, the usual assumption, but 
rather as a test of the ability to make abstractions and combinations. On the 
basis of this they seek to distinguish themselves by a brilliant score; they are 
in the mood to break records in the experiment. Because they are attentive 
and conscious of the goal, and because of their ambition, they are able to 
produce good forms. This type can be designated the W+ type. Imagina- 
tive subjects who are capable of constructing a combined "W for each plate, 
may also be of this type, especially if the associative processes are facilitated 
by their being in a particularly good humor. 

In contrast to this W+ type, there is a W type. Subjects of this type 
give ten "W answers but the form is poor, F . This situation probably never 
occurs in normals. On the other hand, it is seen occasionally in abulic, in- 
different schizophrenics who simply call every figure a ^btttterfly^ or a 
mangled butterfly . The type is also seen in very scattered, excited schizo- 
phrenics who give 10 DdW answers, that is, they picfc out some small un- 
important detail and name the whole figure according to it, neglecting other 
parts of the figure. Such a patient may call Plate X a mountain landscape 
after having interpreted a minute detail as the knee of a chamoii. Another 
patient called Plate VIII a session of the Swiss parliament because the red 
and white coloring reminded him of Switzerland and its government. 

I have never seen a pure D or a pure Dd type. These are always mixed. 
The type depends on how rapidly the subject shifts from the W to D, from 
D to Dd, etc., or, conversely, how long the patient persists in trying to see 
as many W's as possible, as many D's as possible, etc. 

1 German = Erfassimgstypen. Variously translated in English as mode of appercep- 
tion, <ctype of attack, etc. 



42 



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43 

Table V Indicates the distribution of the In the 

groups. 

In normals, the most common apperceptive Is W-D, with or 

less definite supremacy of "W^s: the subject shows perseverance in the 

tendency to give at least one whole answer for each figure* The more 
this tendency, the more certain it is the subject is theoretically inclined; 

the less this tendency makes itself apparent, the more practical the Intel- 
lectual life of the subject. The latter is especially common women. 
The different types of intelligence indicated here will be discussed more fully 
in connection with a fuller discussion of that subject later. 

e) Sequence in the Modes of Apperception. 

The idea of eonceptive types would be defined most clearly if the strict- 
ness or laxity of the succession of Ws, D's, etc., could be expressed simul- 
taneously in a single formula. This could not be done without undue com- 
plications, and the type had to be fixed simply according to the number of 
Ws, D's, etc., produced by the subject. Consequently, the problem of suc- 
cession of the various modes must be discussed separately. It is possible that 
distinct types dependent on sequence could be established, but this is not 
necessary. It suffices to differentiate between rigid, orderly, inverse, loose 
and scattered successions. 

Subjects who take the experiment very seriously show the most rigid 
succession; they come closest to the fictitious <cnormal described on page 
36. These subjects take everything they do seriously, not excepting the ex- 
periment. Their highest law is logical reasoning; they are logicians to whom 
the form is more important than the content. Pedantic and school teacher* 
personalities are found in this group, as are, on the other hand, depressed 
subjects with ideas of inferiority, anxious subjects, and psychotic depressions. 

The average subject shows an optimum rigidity of sequence. This is to be 
distinguished from the maximal rigidity just described; it does not sacrifice 
the content for the form as was the case there. Well-preserved paranoid 
cases and most of the organic patients react like the normals in this respect. 
This type of sequence may be called orderly. 

Inverse sequence is seen most frequently in careful, timid subjects, also 
in those who are imaginative and show tabulation and combination in their 
answers. 

Loose succession is seen in unintelligent or feebleminded subjects, in 
manics and epileptics, in Korsakoff cases, and, finally, in many schizo- 
phrenics. Euphoria or labile mood tends to make the succession loose. Many 
neurotics, imaginative people, artists also show this though otherwise their 
results are excellent. 

This looseness of succession may go so far as complete scattering, as is 
the case in many schizophrenics. This occurs in latent cases, and even in 



44 





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cases where there has never been the of 

phrenia. A scattered schizophrenic may interpret a in 

Plate I, give seeral answers which are quite in all other 

factors for Plate II, see only a small while intermediate in 111, 

give three Ws for Plate IV one of which be the 

absurd. He may fail to answer on Plate V, etc. 

7. Content of Interpretations. Percent 

We now arrive at the fourth of the questions posed on 19, namely. 

What is seen? 

All sorts of imaginable (and in the case of the schizophrenics, unima- 
ginable) answers are given. A few principles can be established in of 
wide individual and pathological variations in the content of interpretations. 

Animal forms are seen the most frequently. Almost all intelligent sub- 
jects, regardless of education, gave from 25 to 50% animal forms in their 
answers. Furthermore, only imaginative subjects gave less than 35/% while 
subjects showing any kind of stereotypy gave more than 50 % animal an- 
swers. This observation gave rise to the idea that the percent of animal res- 
ponses could be used as an indicator of stereotypy in the subject; this proved 
to be generally correct. The animai percentage actually is quite a reliable 
indicator of stereotypy both for normals as well as for patients. Table VI 
gives a summary of the findings. 

In a few cases, and these are rare, the animal forms are replaced by some 
other object as the indicator of stereotypy. This is especially the case in the 
oligophrenics, particularly imbeciles. In these, parts of the body may replace 
the animal form, so that the subjects see fingers, hands, feet, noses, eyes, etc., 
everywhere. In many morons with complexes * dictating that they try to 
show intelligence, especially morons with hysterical features, anatomical 
forms replace parts of the body as indicators of stereotypy. Such subjects 
may interpret the same items throughout the experiment: tlobes of the lung, 
lhe spinal column, intestines, and so forth, Epileptoid and traumatic 
neurotic cases react similarly. 

Comparison with the other tables requires little commentary, though 
attention must be drawn to one fact, that percent of animal answers is al- 
ways inversely proportional to the number of kinaesthesias. The smaller the 
animal percentage, the more answers in which the factor of movement has a 
part; the fewer of the latter, the greater the animal percentage and the less 
variable the answers. 

Characteristic relationships appear when we study the interpretations of 
human forms, quite apart from the animal answers. This is clearly seen on 

1 German Intelligenzkomplex. 



46 







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Schizophrenic 


The most scattered 
catatonics. 


Somewhat scattered, 
productive 
paranoids 


Less productive 
catatonics 
and paranoids- 


Stereotyped. Hebe- 
phrenics. With 
simple dementia. 


Completely stereo- 
typed, especially with 
simple dementia and 
old paranoids. 


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elated mood. 




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comparison of the number of answers in which whole figures are as 

opposed to the interpretation of parts of the human figure. Most 
intelligent subjects and the scattered and inhibited schizophrenics interpret 
more whole figures and almost no parts. Hypomanic normals, confabulating 
morons, epileptics, most schizophrenics, and most organic interpret 

more complete figures than parts. More parts of human than wholes 

are seen by unintelligent normals, mildly depressed individuals, anxious and 
pedantic subjects, hebephrenic and stereotyped cases. Non-confabulating 
morons, imbeciles, cases of simple dementia, the psychoticly depressed, and 
arteriosclerotic patients show almost exclusively parts of human figures 
rather than wholes. 

Inanimate objects are frequently indicated in the interpretations of very 
scattered schizophrenics and of oligophreiiic epileptics. They are occasionally 
seen in the tests of rather scattered normal subjects, especially women, and 
also in the protocols of manic-depressive patients. 

In schizophrenics, especially in cases showing scattering, and in some epi- 
leptics, answers which interpret a blue spot as csky, a brown one as cough 
mixture, are not infrequently seen. Abstract interpretations are numerous 
in schizophrenics. Examples of this are seen in Plate I interpreted as resnr- 
rection because the female figure in the middle is Arising from the grave*, 
and in Plate X, as a color benefit. Interpretations in which subjects refer 
to themselves deserve special mention and have not yet been examined suf- 
ficiently to do more than note that they are especially common in protocols 
of schizophrenics. 

8. Original Responses. 

The last item to be separated from the mass of answers concerns the 
original responses. These must be counted and converted to a percentage 
figure. Answers which have occurred but once in 100 tests are scored as 
original. These are separated into Original + (0+) and Original (0 ) 
according to the quality of the M, F, or FC of the respective interpretation. 
When the designation of the answer is CF or C, and it cannot be determined 
whether it is 0+ or these answers are best subtracted from the totals 
before the percentage of original answers is computed. 

0+ and responses are frequently found in the same set of results, 
but, in general, one or the other predominates. In schizophrenics, most ab- 
surd and very appropriate answers are found following one another. The 
relation of 0+ to O is, of course, not without importance. Table VII is 
an attempt to give orientation as to the significance of the original answers. 
The number on the left indicates the quantity of answers. The quality is 
indicated by symbols in the body of the table, indicating that 0+ pre- 
dominates over though both are present, and + indicating the opposite 
relationship. 



48 



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in remission i 


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paranoid i 


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gence, practical +. 
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depressive mood +. 


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manic mood + 


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Flighty + 


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_ 49 
9. 

AH the factors of the protocols of the to 

computation have now been covered. There are be 

mentioned, but which are omitted in order to avoid the 

unnecessarily. 

Logically one should discuss the interplay of the factors extracted above 
in the various types of normals and in the psychoses, as a of 

section. Such a study would, however, go beyond the scope of work, 
the limited amount of material does not allow the necessary analysis. I there- 
fore content myself by presenting Table VHI, which is, in a sense, a conden- 
sation of such a summary. Table VIII is in fact a summary of the preceding 
tables, and like them, therefore, can present only rough averages of results. 

Two methods suggest themselves for orientation of the further discussion, 
first a more general attack on the problems; secondly, one based on differen- 
tial diagnosis, a psychographic approach. For the present, we must use the 
first method of attack in order to clarify some of the heterogeneous and ill- 
defined concepts, such as intelligence^ which have already been used. 

A few further details on the method of the experiment are in order be- 
fore proceeding to this discussion. 



Rorschach, Psychodiagnostics. 



50 



51 



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IH. FURTHER OBSERVATIONS ON THE METHOD. 

1. Prerequisites of the Individual Plates. 

As was noted at the beginning of this discussion, the series of figures 
used in the test gradually developed on the basis of empirical observations. 
The particular qualities shown by the several plates are as follows: 
Plate I. Black. Failure is almost never encountered. Stimulates form and 
movement responses equally. Easy to interpret as a Whole and in De- 
tails. There are a number of small Details which frequently give rise to 
answers. 

Plate IL Black and Red, Kinaesthesias more easily seen than in I. Contains 
a prominent intermediate figure. Color is introduced and occasionally 
induces a suggestion of color shock. The red runs into the black. 
Plate III. Black and Red. Kinaesthesias' easiest to see. The red separated 

from the black. 

Plate IV. Black. Form and movement answers both comparatively difficult. 
More difficult to interpret as a whole than in details. The figure is 
generally considered beautiful but the interpretation difficult. 
Plate V. Black. The easiest form to interpret. Almost always interpreted 
as a bat, or a moth. Schizophrenics frequently fail to answer on this 
figure, or they see, for example, moving people in it. 
Plate VI. Black. Generally called the most difficult of the figures. 
Plate VII. Black. The essential part is the white intermediate figure, a rather 
obvious oil lamp, rather than the black figures. This Plate presents the 
converse of Plate V, in that normals rarely see the lamp while schizo- 
phrenics frequently do. 
Plate VIII. Multicolored. Harmonious color and form. Color shock apparent 

in neurotics. Easily interpreted, at least in detail. 
Plate IX. Multicolored. Discordant color and form. Kinaesthesias easily 

aroused. In addition, a definite intermediate figure. 
Plate X. Multicolored. Disparate blots. Whole answers almost impossible. 

Further work with the test, be it corroborative or simply the examination 
of large numbers of cases, can only be accomplished in a definitive manner 
with the plates accompanying this book. While I do not mean to claim that 
this series is a non plus ultra, nevertheless, I must emphasize that results, 
if they are to be comparable to those here presented, must be obtained with 
identical plates or with an analogous series suitable standardized. 



53 
2. Series. 

Two or three parallel series have proved necessary. Frequently occasion 
arises when the test must be repeated with the same subject. Such situations 
appear when one wishes to test normals in various moods, manic-depressives 
IE different stages, schizophrenics In various conditions, or In testing patients 
before and after psychoanalysis, etc. Or a control test on a normal may be 
desired. If the test Is repeated with the same plates, conscious or unconscious 
memory enters to warp the result. Analogous series of plates, different from 
the usual ones but satisfying the prerequisites for the Individual plates of 
the basic series, are necessary for these situations. 

These parallel series are obtained by selecting those which satisfy the 
prerequisites of the basic series from a large number of blots prepared as 
described above. This done, the plates must be tested to see that they are 
accepted by the majority of subjects and are not simply rejected as blots. 
After this, standardization Is taken up. 

Normal subjects of different degrees of intelligence and education must 
be used for the standardization. The standardization process consists In test- 
ing whether the new series is analogous to the original In that movement 
and color answers are aroused with equal ease. It must also consider whether 
the possibility of seeing wholes and intermediate figures is the same In the 
two series. In other words, It should neither be easier or more difficult to 
interpret the various factors from either series, and the number of answers 
should compare favorably. Plate I of the new series should give approximately 
the same number of F's and M's as Plate I of the original, etc. Plate V of 
the parallel series should present an object equally easy to recognize; Plate 
VII should have an intermediate figure that is not too obtrusive but easily 
recognizable. It is most Important that the figures should not be more irregu- 
lar and complicated, for the more complicated the figures, the more difficult 
the computations. 

The production of such parallel series is not as difficult and time-consum- 
ing as it at first appears. I speak here from my own experience with them. 

3. Control Tests. 

The use of special series of plates as controls, special tests for M, C, etc., 
serves to widen the scope of the test significantly. Two examples will be 
given. 

The original test has shown that color has a remarkable influence In the 
perception of epileptics, especially cases showing dementia. This phenomenon 
was studied further by the use of a control series of three pictures. The first 
represented a cat colored like a frog, the second a squirrel in the colors of 
a rooster, the third a frog in the colors of a chaffinch. The result was that 



_ 54 

only epileptics, and only demented cases, particularly those which were ori- 
ginally feebleminded, called the greea cat a frog, etc. The color was, in them, 
more influential than the natural, exact form. This has not been observed in 
any feebleminded subject to date. A similar answer was given by a scattered 
schizophrenic, but this was observed but once. 

Another control test was made by showing subjects two drawings, both 
of which depicted a mower in the position of mowing. No grass or scythe, 
etc., were shown in the picture. One of these two drawings was traced from 
the other, so that both had the same position and form, but the traced one 
showed the mower as left-handed. The subjects were asked, What is the man 
doing, and then, Which of the two is, in your opinion, drawn correctly? 
The result was remarkable. Those subjects who gave a large number of kin- 
aesthetic answers in the usual experiment recognized the mower as a mower, 
but were at a loss to answer the second question. In more than half the cases, 
they finally designated the left-handed figure as the one drawn correctly. 
(Left-handed subjects indicated the right-handed figure.) On the other hand, 
those subjects who gave no or few M answers immediately answered both 
questions correctly. Imbeciles in most cases were able to say which figure 
was drawn correctly, the right-handed indicating th$ right-handed figure, and 
the left-handed the left. Schizophrenics, when an answer was obtained, re- 
acted similarly, though they also frequently said that the figures were equally 
correct. On the whole, this test was found to be far less applicable to schizo- 
phrenics than is the usual interpretation experiment. 

Such problems need much further study. 



4. Recording Technique* 

The record of the experiment should contain more than the answers 

given. Facial expressions, voluntary and involuntary mo vemois. .signs of 

possible color shock, etc., should be * mcluTI(53r*^^- - """ 

The symbols used as abbreviations above are used in the computations: 

by using them the essential factors of the answers may be summarized quite 

easily. The following are examples of the method: 

Plate I. Butterfly. Interpreted as a whole = W. Answer frequently 
given by intelligent subjects, therefore, a good form = F+. Ani- 
mal Figure = A. Signum: WF+A 

Plate X. Two caterpillars. Green medial. Detail answer = D. Form con- 
sidered first, color secondarily, form good = FC+. Animal figure 
= A. Signum: DFC+A 

Plate I. Two angels with streaming robes floating in the air. Detail an- 
swer = D. Kinaesthetic motif = M. Good F+ and M. Whole 
human figure = H. Signum: DM+H 



DO 

Plate I. Crab. Secondary, confabulated whole answer = DW. F 

visualized = F . DWP A 

Plate IV, A castle*. A small but well-visualized detail In the 

sion on either side between the head of the the inser- 

tion of the lateral projection. Signum: BdP+ 

Plate X. A collection of butterflies . Whole answer 

by color but form is not entirely disregarded. Signum: WCP 'A 
Further examples will be found in the last part of the book. 
It is unfortunate that long descriptions are often necessary to indicate 

what part of the plate is interpreted. This difficulty is apparent only in 

publications, however, for in practice it is possible to locate unusual answers 

by tracing the part of the plate in question. An even better method is to 

allow the subject himself to do the tracing. 



IV. RESULTS. 



1. Intelligence. 

Thus far in the discussion the concept ^intelligence* has meant nothing 
more than an empirical estimation of the subject. The figures given in the 
tables are averages and the number of subjects is large (about 120 intel- 
ligent normals); it should be possible to draw conclusions from the figures 
given. Since the entire experiment is a test of perception and conception, 
these averages should give information as to how the perception and con- 
ception of normal, intelligent subjects may be distinguished. At the same 
time, it should be possible to establish symptom values for the experimental 
factors on an etiological basis; thus far, this has been possible only on stat- 
istical bases. 

Protocols of intelligent subjects are characterized by the following find- 
ings: 

1. A large percentage of clearly* vistfaii^elf fbrms. 

2. Many kihaesthelicL influences acting in the perceptive process. 

3. A large number of whole answers. 

4. Good conceptive types; W, W D, or W D Dd. 

5. Optimum rigidity of sequence of mode of apperception (orderly). 

6. Small percentage of animal answers. In other words, increased vari* 
ability of interpretations. 

7. Neither too large or too small percentage of original answers. 
(The color answers alone show nothing characteristic for the group.) 
These seven factors may vary considerably from the average in individual 

cases. These variations express the mixture of a number of the faculties com- 
posing what we call intelligence, or, better, the various types of intelli- 
gence . 

A high percentage of good form$ presumes, first, the ability to maintain 
attention throughout the whole of the test, that is, a re J ability to concen- 
trate; only when this ability is preset are clear perceptions possible. Sub- 
jects in which the span of attention is shortened show hazy form visualization 
in at le^ast part of the experiment. Such is the case in flighty or fatigued 
subjects, in manic of delirious patients an3 i^^ganic cases. v j&eondly, the 
engrains must be clear, for if the memory images are not definite, accurate 
form visualization, will be impossible. This is the case" ***ri*k -ctraf abulators, 
many morons, and organic cases. Third, a high percentage of good forms 



57 

<|he ability to recall Into consciousness^ to to mind'-, 

memory images. This is an associative process be by 

rfr by organic disease. Fourth, there be an to the 

most fitting of the various similar images which arise. This is, in 

a complex associative process which upon the 

now focus, not only on the external stimuli, on the memory 
ing as well. This function must, at the femish a control of the 

perceptive processes, controlling criticism of the interpretations. 

When all these abilities are present to the maximum, the 
should be seen in the protocols. Accordingly, we find the best forms in the 
pedants and depressed subjects, especially in psychotic depressions. These 
subjects take the test very seriously* They search laboriously for good 
forms, bringing to bear all their attention faculties of self-criticism 

so that they achieve an F+ percentage of almost 100, though the answers 
are extraordinarily stereotyped, a of variation. The 

maximum and the optimum *of these four abilities are, therefore, f wo quite 
different quantities. 

Pedantic and depressed subjects sacrifice almost all the other factors of 
the experiment in payment for the privilege of having the best forms. So far 
as form goes, they outstrip the normally intelligent subject, but in other fac- 
tors they are far behind so that they approach the reaction shown by im- 
beciles. The exaggerated propensity for clear form visualization makes their 
answers stereotyped and the content suffers. Furthermore, a number of other 
formal principles of the perceptive process are curbed by this propensity. It 
is these .^gejj^njtic and_dejUDeftsetl^rabjects who experience the interpretations 
as painfully uncertain and who become most acutely critical of the percep- 
tions, of their own functions, as it were. This is a part of their general self- 
criticism. (See page 23.) 

Judging from the total data from intelligent subjects, the optimum clarity 
of form visualization is to be found when engrams and perceptions are clear 
and there is control of the assimilative process, but these faculties must not 
be present to such an extent that they cripple all other functions. 

In summary, it may be concluded that the F percentage is an indicator 
of the clarity of certain perhaps all associative processes, and of the length 
of the span of attention and the ability to concentrate. The optimum F+ 
percentage, that is, the optimum of the faculties listed above, is expressed in 
from 80 to 95 /o F+. This is, then, the first component of intelligence. Only 
pedants show 100% F+, the maximum. 

The situation is the same in the case of the second factor. The sequence 
of the mode of apperception shows an optimal rigidity in the intelligent sub- 
jects, but is more or less loose in unintelligent and flighty subjects, and in 
manics and epileptics. Maximal rigidity is shown by pedantic and depressed 
subjects. (See page 43.) 



_ 58 

The tendency toward a very rigid succession of W, D, etc., for each of 
the ten figures its basis in the same ingrained attitude that the best 

visualization of forms has. It is that conscious and almost painful attitude of 
self-criticism in regard to the form of logic in thinking. For this rigid suc- 
cession the same stable attention and great precision of the associative pro- 
cess is required as for the form vision. Again^ the content and many other 
principles of perception are sacrificed to some extent for the sake of the 
form of thinking. When the sequence is rigid to the maximum, we usually 
deal with poor types of apperception such as D Do, or almost that. Rigid 
sequence and a better type of apperception such as W D, may he found 
chiefly in two situations. 

The first of these is in the case of certain schoolmaster and bureau- 
cratic types, where daily exercise supports and emphasizes the attitude. Here 
the precision of self-control and the pride in consistency gives rise to ideas 
of superiority, overcompensating the feelings of insufficiency in the indi- 
vidual The second instance in which rigid succession and a good apper- 
ceptive type can occur together is when labile affectivity is stabilized by 
conscious attention to the form of thinking, as is the case in many compul- 
sion neuroses. The number of M*s and Ws remains too small, the animal 
percentage too large, and a few Do answers, otherwise characteristic of 
feeblemindedness, creep in, reducing the quality of the type of apperception 
in these cases. 

The optimum rigidity of sequence and clarity of visualization of form 
characteristic of the normally intelligent subject occurs with no consciousness 
of effort; it is automatic, a result of habitual tendencies in the individual. 
The logical function is also automatic, like the control of the nervous im- 
pulses involved in riding a bicycle. This function is preserved even in the 
cases of organic brain disease, probably because it is an ability which be- 
came automatic early in life. 

The sequence becomes loose and scattered when there is flattening of 
the affect; the effect is even greater when the affect is unstable. Sequence 
is also disturbed when the span of attention is too short, or the ability to 
direct the attention is interfered with as in the case of manic s. In schizo- 
phrenia, where the complex associative processes are constantly vague, inter- 
rupted and scattered, the sequence is, again, loose and scattered. 

The automatic, unconscious ability to discipline the thinking to logical 
ends is, then, another component of intelligence. It is expressed in terms of 
optimal rigidity of sequence of W, D, etc., and is dependent upon stability 
of attention. 

Intelligent subjects produce 7 to 10, or more, whole responses, usually 
clearly visualized F's or M*s. This undoubtedly demands the availability of 
many visual images in memory, and also a considerable degree of that free- 
dom of association which allows the right engram to be recalled at the right 



59 

moment. In short, It a of 

There are some subjects, however, 5 0r 6 W % s 

answers clearly Indicate a wealth of a 

ber of Ws Is unlikely without a of it Is 

this factor alone Is not sufficient to the of W 

subjects who are ambitious to produce a of the quality, 

the experiment as a test of the ability to to 

make an excellent record by giving only W the W 

above, together with those in elated mood, produce the W 

Among Intelligent subjects, pedantic depressed the W 

Therefore, we conclude that the more vivid the affect, the W 

produced by the subject. Evidently the production of a number of W*s 

requires a certain affective coloring, a special sort of volition, In addition 

to the wealth of engrains. 

This must be a willing attitude, Its goal to conceive thc wholes; not 
infrequently, this attitude is combined with a strong antipathy for details. 
The act of the will may be toward combining details into wholes. Sometimes 
the subject Is quite conscious of Ms attitude of striving to set a record, 
again, it is an habitual tendency which Is not consciously realized. It may be 
an entirely unconscious tendency. It is always the expression of associative 
activity, this activity being increased by the affective charge (the state of 
willlng). The energy of this charge must not be confused with diligence In 
carrying out the test; the pedants and depressions never give large numbers 
of "W" responses, even with the most assiduous diligence. "We deal with a 
will to produce, a disposition set toward producing* and this is intensified 
in the experiment by the desire to set a record. 

Bfanics show less W responses than do intelligent subjects In hypontanle 
mood, and organic cases in manic phase do not give large numbers of Vs. 
These facts will be explained in a later section. 

The number of "W" responses is to be considered primarily as an indicator 
of the energy of associative activity, dependent on a disposltioital set of the 
subject. Frequently the number of Ws is an Indicator of a conscious or un- 
conscious willing in the direction of achieving complicated performances, 
such as abstraction or combination in the Interpretations. Thus we find that 
subjects with philosophic Interests produce many good primary W respon- 
ses, and the imaginative show many good combinatory Ws. An optimum 
ability to produce "W" answers Is another component. Study of the apper- 
ceptive types will indicate where this optimum lies. 

The intelligent subject usually has a W D conceptive type, with more 
or less emphasis on "W or on D, and with more or less inclusion of small 
details, Dd. Individual variations among Intelligent subjects are much larger 
with this factor than In the case of F and W. The various apperceptive types 
are associated with very different types of Intelligence. Subjects producing 



_ 60 - 

many Ws a few or no D*s are abstract thinkers, or are persons given to 

phantasy. They have strong self-assertive tendencies, and are ambitious to 
produce the best. They dislike the small, concrete details of daily life. Sub- 
jects who, in addition to a large number of Ws, also produce an even larger 
number of D\ but few Dd's, are more plastic. They are better able to direct 
the attention to a given problem. While less abstract than the group last 
discussed, they are still oriented more toward the theoretical rather than the 
practical, more concerned with the problem than with the absolute facts. 
Subjects producing an average number of Ws (6 or 7), and with them many 
Ws but only a few Dd's, &re definitely more practical than theoretical, do 
not dwell on abstract subjects, but reach for tangible things. They prefer 
cleverness to wisdom. 

Subjects who combine the findings of the last group with many Dd 
(W D Dd), are confined to details in their work and have little ability to 
make combinations and abstractions. They may possess good powers of ob- 
servation, but they get stack in the unimportant details. The subject who 
responds with many W, few D, but many Dd, is certainly impractical and 
actually avoids practical things. His ideas may be original, but their devel- 
opment is faulty, now chasing an abstract idea, now stuck on a tiny, curious 
detail. He is a tyrant and a grumbler in all his judgments. 

A combination of Ws, D's, and Dd's which indicates neither a cramping 
tendency to think abstractly nor too great a concern with petty details, is 
characteristic of that form of intelligence usually called the common-sense 
type of mind. 

All of these types occur in the finest nuances of variation and all within 
the intelligent group. The capacities of the subject in any particular field 
are not indicated, but much is indicated about the ways and means the sub- 
ject will adopt in bringing his capacities to bear on any subject. 

What component of intelligence is represented by the apperceptive type? 
Table VII shows that elated mood improves the apperceptive type (neglecting 
the other factors for the moment), while depressed mood tends to make it 
poorer. If we neglect all the other factors, it is seen that the apperceptive 
type characteristic of normal, intelligent subjects is also approached in or- 
ganic cases (excluding depressed arteriosclerotics), by epileptics, by scattered 
schizophrenics, and even by imbeciles and feebleminded subjects, provided 
they show confabulation. At the opposite extreme there are the pedants, 
some compulsion neurotics, also the depressed, the apathetic imbeciles and 
the stereotyped schizophrenics. From the comparison of these extremes, it 
may be concluded that the quality of the apperceptive type is determined 
primarily by emotional factors. 

A rich apperceptive type includes a goodly number of whole answers. 
Energy of associative activity, evidenced by the large number of Ws, must, 
therefore, be present if a rich apperceptive type is to be produced by a sub- 



61 

ject. This energy of associative activity is not to a 

apperceptive type: the pure W type subject wim all his to set 

for the experiment demonstrates this point. A really 

roust not be so one-sided. A good type also requires 

that is, clarity of associative processes and ability to concentrate. If 

visualization is not clear, and the attention cannot be directed properly, the 

appereeptive type may be rich, but never good. 

A further faculty is necessary to produce optimal rigidity of sequence, 
namely the ability to discipline the logical functions. This been discussed 
previously, and is, it will be recalled, dependent largely on the capacity to 
direct the attention. 

In summary, it may be said that a good appereeptive type is dependent 
upon an almost incalculable number of associative and emotional factors, 
regulating, facilitating or inhibiting as the case may be. A good appereeptive 
type is impossible without a certain lability of the will which allows direction. 
without the clarity of associative activity which leads to good form visualiza- 
tion, and yet not too intense clarity in this respect. 

The regulation to which all these factors must be submitted if a good 
appereeptive type is to result, is again, dependent on still more factors* The 
basis for any given appereeptive type is probably the individual type of in- 
telligence springing from the constitution of the subject* This may be ab- 
stract-theoretical, combinatory-imaginative, practical-concrete^ grumbling, or 
some other combination. This way of reacting, which has its roots in the 
constitution, is modified by the mood, and, on the other hand, by conscious 
direction of the attention. These factors influence the distribution of asso- 
ciative energy in various /ays. The intraindividual variations in different 
experiments demonstrate the range of variation in productivity within a 
single individual; the inter-individual differences indicate the variations of 
the constituent parts of the intelligence , and these are significant. 

Another component of intelligence may now be defined. It is the ability 
to distribute affective and associative factors so that there is a drive towards 
logical arrangement, so that important and unimportant things are in 
logical relationships and in proper logical sequence. The presence of a goal 
idea gives rise to the ability to concentrate which makes possible, in turn, 
the distribution of affective and associative factors as indicated above. An 
optimum of urge toward associative activity then arises, and makes possible 
a maximum number of W responses as well as the optimum clearness of asso- 
ciations on which visualization of good forms depends. This activity shows 
wide variations in subjects within normal range. 

Average intelligence is characterized by 20 35 50/o animal responses. 
This indicates a certain optimum variability for interpretations. Because of 
the great number of possible forms, the animal figure is generally appro- 
priate, and arises most easily during the interpretation. Because of this there 



82 

is an associative acceptance of which exerts a stereotyping 

Influence on the Interpretations. In consequence, the percent animal res- 
becomes the Indicator of the tendency to produce stereotyped asso- 
ciations. In the case of imbeciles, however, it appears to be more difficult to 
recall animal figures, while parts of human figures are called up in associa- 
tions more easily. 

The opposite of this stereotyping tendency is freedom of associations, the 
ability to withdraw from associative acceptances which lead to stereotypy. 
Both situations are expressions of the concept looseness of associations , 
which must neither be to constricted nor too free in normal thinking. Too 
marked looseness of associations inevitably leads to unsteadiness, scattering 
and flight in the associative process; too little freedom (looseness), to stereo- 
typy, confining to one category of engrams. 

20 30% animal answers are observed in protocols of imaginative sub- 
jects, artists, persons who turn away from reality to a greater or lesser de- 
gree. Only scattered schizophrenics see as few as this. (In epileptics, other 
factors of the experiment may replace the animal percentage as indicator of 
stereotypy; usually the factor is the kinaesthetic answer.) In the normal 
group, the practical sort of person stands in contrast to the artist. Subjects 
in the definitely practical occupations almost always have a high percentage 
of animal answers. Furthermore, percent animal responses rises with age, so 
that a subject over 40 rarely has less than 50% animal responses, and above 
50, rarely less than 60%. "We may conclude, then, that age increases the 
tendency to stereotyped associations and decreases the freedom of associa- 
tions. 

Depressed mood, especially psychotic depression, and dulling of the emo- 
tional reactions as in dementia simplex, markedly increase stereotypy. Hypo- 
mania (within the range of normal moods) increases the range of variability 
in the answers; this is less outspoken in real elation. 

The optimum of variability in the answers is not the same for all types 
of intelligence. The business man with too little stereotypy in his make up 
would be hampered in his business routines. The theorist with a strong 
tendency toward stereotypy would slip into dogmatism easily. 

It must be emphasized that this tendency to stereotypy is entirely in- 
dependent of the ability to concentrate. The creation of the associative 
attitude is of unconscious origin and is, primarily, in the associative category, 
whereas concentration is fundamentally an emotional, conscious phenomenon. 

Still another component of intelligence is now apparent. It is the opti- 
mum ability to form stereotyped associations, or, in other words, neither too 
great nor too little freedom (looseness) of associations. 

To a certain extent, the same factors determine the number of good 
original answers, but others also enter in. A large number of good original 
answers is another characteristic of intelligence. These responses are also 



83 

on the clarity of the etc.. 

of forms, on or of of the 

engrains. 

The average tradesman is 

as does the educated or, lie The 

answers alone are sufficient 10 the of the 

The number of good original answers as as 

slderation. The number of original of 

the associative life of the individual, the of fre- 

quently reveals whether this peculiarity is a of his 

or is actually the result of broad education* If the O all In 

the same group, if they all originate in the set, the 

vidnality is determined primarily by the subject's education. Ex* 

amples may be found in the medical man who interprets 
objects in the test, and in the botanist, who because 

unknown to laymen, produces a large number of *O~n responses. If the 
original answers themselves are highly variable, howeWr, they demonstrate 
strikingly the individual's broad, general education. 

The rule, cthe maximum is not the optimum*, Is valid for the original 
answers. A subject who produces no original responses will be unoriginal in 
living as well; more than 50% responses is, however, beyond the optimal 
range. If the original answers all of one sort, stereotyped, the subject 
shop. If they are real original responses and are based on 



a very marked loosening of association, the subject is in the world but not 
of it i . He lives more in his problem more likely, even*.Jnhis fantasies- 
than in reality; he has separated himself from the perceptive an3* M *lrppercep'- 
tive mode of his fellows to such an extent that he has lost the ability to 
adapt intellectually. 

Another component of intelligence is indicated. It is the possession of an 
optimal number of individual engrams. The number of these must not be- 
come so large that because of them the subject loses the ability to adapt to 
the apperceptive type of his fellow men. 

Finally, intelligent subjects always produce at least a few responses de- 
termined by, kinaesjJb^^ determined by form per- 

ception. It should be possible to deduce a further component of intelligence 
from this fact. The groups which showed the least whole answers, i e. those 
with poverty of ideas, the stereotyped and the depressed, produce no M 
responses whatever. Artists, imaginative subjects, and abstract thinkers inter- 
pret the most MV Two other categories lie between these extremes; pract- 
ical subjects' imB^Jfre more imitative produce few/TKTV a larger number are 
interpreted by theorists, the more creative Bubj%/Fhese findings would 

1 German WcItfremder. 



_ 64 

tend to indicate that M responses are characteristic of subjects who function 
more in the intellectual sphere, whose interests gravitate more toward their 
intra-psychic living rather than toward the world outside themselves. 

On the whole, there is a direct proportion between clear form visualiza- 
tion and the number of M responses. Disturbances of mood alone disrupt 
this proportion, making it inverse. Because of this finding, however, it can- 
not be said that any more than an indirect relationship exists between F*s 
and M's. The findings are the same when the number of M's and the rigidity 
of sequence are studied for their relationship to each other. 

There is a definite incompatibility between the state of being aware of 
the clarity of associations and the production, of Ms. Subjects who consciously 
wish to produce movement responses will produce hazy interpretations. This 
is the case with manics and epileptics who give secondary MY In conclusion 
it is found^ furthermore, that the subjects possessing the clearest associa- 
tions, the pedants and the depressed, those who produce the best forms and 
the most rigid sequence, have no movement responses in their protocols. 

The number of RTs is, however, directly proportional to the number of 
Ws. Disturbances of mood do not reverse this relationship, but fit in with it. 
(See Table VIII.) There are, of course, exceptions in which large numbers of 
"W answers occur with relatively small numbers of M's, and few Ws with 
relatively manv M's, but these exceptions do not invalidate the usual direct 
proportion, and nowhere do they reverse it. Furthermore, it never happens 
that very few Ws occur with many Ms, and almost never are very large 
numbers of Ws seen without large numbers of M"s accompanying. There 
must, then, exist a direct, or at least a relatively direct, relationship between 
whole and movement responses. 

Since there is an incompatibility between Idnaesthetic factors and the 
state of being aware of the clarity of the associations, the relationship above 
cannot be founded on the factors which produce a large number of Ws, 
namely, a conscious willing to make complicated performances (see page 41). 
Furthering this line of thought, the kinaesthesias naturally are not associated 
in any way with the performances of abstraction or combination. 

Therefore, the basis for this relationship must lie in another field. It is 
based on the emotional and disposition-associative factors of W-formation, 
L e., on the energy of associative activity in the disposition (constitution) of 
the subject. The prominence of emotional origins for this relationship is 
supported by the fact that mood disturbances do not invalidate the direct 
proportional relationship between "W\amdM's, but rather fit in with it, or 
tend to make it more apparent. Th^ same dispositional energy which is the 
origin for large numbers of "W responses must also be the origin for M 
answers. 

This must be demonstrated in the relationship between the percent animal 
responses and the original answers. In fact, the number of M's shows the 



65 

most definite direct proportion to the variability of the Is, 

is an Inverse proportion between the of the 

answers. The direct proportion between the of 

and the M responses is even more clear. These arc cen- 

stant they are even supported in cases where is a factor. 3f s 

therefore, depend in some way upon the freedom of pre- 

vents stereotyped associative patterns. When the capacity to with 

such stereotyping influences is great, the number of STs Is large. This 
city may become too great as It does in hypomanics 

"When stereotypy Is too marked, on the other hand, few or no Si's are pro- 
duced. The tendency toward stereotypy Increases with in the 
number of H's decreases with age. 

M responses represent, then, a component of Intelligence which parallels 
the freedom of association, parallels the number of individual (original) res- 
ponses. This component Is Increased In force by elated mood; its effect Is 
decreased in depression and dulling of emotional reactions. From these facts 
it may be concluded that this component of Intelligence must be intimately 
bound up with the emotional processes. This component Is not increased in 
force by conscious effort or by consciously focussing attention upon it; these 
efforts tend rather to Injure Its functioning* It must be Identical with emo- 
tional energy (more unconscious than conscious), and with the energy . of 
associative activity inherent In the disposition of the individual subject. 

This component of Intelligence can be nothing other than the ability to 
create new, individual productions, the capacity for Dinner creations. In Its 
finest development we call this artistic Inspiration, religious experience, etc. 
Kinaesthesias must, therefore, be some sort of Instrument for Dinner creations 
and for the ability to show Introversion (see discussion below). Thus we 
arrive at the same conclusions that were deduced earlier by statistical means, 
namely, that M responses are characteristic of those subjects whose interests 
gravitate more to their own Intrapsychlc life than to the world outside. 

So far as they are deducible from our experiment, then, we would have 
to differentiate the following components of Intelligence: 

1. Capa,citjJff)M^ (F+ and sequence). 

2. Optimum clarity of perception, of engrains, and of associative processes 
in assimilation (F+). 

3. Optimum of a. ^jJU^^cudiaMpIine" the- logical -function; this is an automatic 
function arising in the individual. 

4. Optifnum of dispositional energy of associative activity, I. e., a conscious 
or unconscious willing to produce complicated performances (W). 

5. The ability to distribute the emotional and associative factors by means 
of a goal idea which maintains direction of attention. 

6. Qpllroiii^ asso,clation t sets, and, In contrast. 

7. Optimum freedom and ease of flow of associations Jtrjpm,' sets which 

Rorschacii, Psyehodiagaostics. * 



_ 66 

otherwise would tend to stereotype associations markedly (Percent Ani- 
mal Responses). 

8. Optimum number of individually determined engrains, optimum originali- 
ty or ability to form original associations. These faculties must be opti- 
mal in the sense that they do not Interfere with the capability to adapt 
to the associative scope of others (Percent Original Responses). 

9. Wealth of associations (Variability, Original Responses). 

10. Availability of associations (Particularly W). 

11. Capacity for inner creation (M). 

All of these components may be more or less developed so that there 
may be an incalculable number of variants, partial and total, of intelligence . 
Further components of intelligence will be found later in this study. 

It may be stated "definitely that the form interpretation test makes possible 
a finely differentiated examination of intelligence. This test examines on a 
Yery broad basis and is almost entirely independent of education and memory. 
Fundamentally, it examines the pattern 1 of the intelligence. 

It mast not be forgotten that some components of intelligence are differ- 
ently developed at different ages. It is obvious that these components will 
be quite different in a five year old child from those in a ten year old, but 
there will be variations in the interplay of the components even after the 
20 th , 30 th or 40 th year, etc. The material available at the present time does 
not allow the construction of a more definite picture of these intra-individual 
variations of the components of intelligence. 

2. Influence of Volition on the Factors. 

The experiment, representing a process of free choice in its usual form, 
can be altered to be one where the choice is conditioned by helps 2 . In 
the usual test, subjects focus on the content of the interpretations. (The "W- 
type is one of the rare exceptions to this statement.) They choose the formal 
components of perception according to constitutionally individual peculiar- 
ities. With parallel series, the experiment may be repeated in such a manner 
that this complete freedom of choice is limited. For instance, subjects may 
be asked to try to interpret as good forms as possible, or as many moving 
figures as they can. Such control tests give rise to the following questions: 

1. How does the focussing of attention on a factor influence the findings 
concerning that factor? 

2. How are the findings in the other factors influenced when attention 
is focussed on one? 

3. How large are the individual variations that may result in all these 
possible control experiments? 

1 German = Formale. 

2 W. Stern, Differentielle Psychologic. Leipzig, 191 1. P. 83. 



To ansuer the other the*** require 

a ^ery large of suitable nith 

of blots. The of not collected 

IB mind, and the In need of confirmation. The are 

civen. nevertheless. 

If the subject Is asked to Interpret as form? as the FT 

percent Is raised; there Is, however, very individual Fact0rs 

necessary for good visualization of are facilitated by the up of 

the conscious goal idea implied in the request. These are 

of of perceptive self-con- 

trol It is, In fact, the function of directed to 

more effectual. Concomitant changes include a significant in M 

W responses, loss in quality of apperceptive type, increase in the percent 
animal answers, and a decrease in original ancf color responses; in 
the individual variations are large. In general, it may be said that the whole 
quality of reaction approaches that characteristic of depressives pedants. 

The results are similar if we demand the roost rigid sequence of W, D, 
etc., possible for the subject. The sequence does become more rigid, while 
other factors suffer. The loss in quality is not as marked as when good forms 
are demanded, however, and it is found that with increasing rigidity of 
sequence, clarity of forms decreases. Since we are dealing with the ability to 
discipline* the logical functions, it is obvious that a command to set up a goal 
will carry with it improvement in sequence. The evident facility of improving 
the sequence is supported by the fact that a certain amount of this sort of 
discipline has become automatic in normals. The quality of the other factors 
of the experiments suffers less than in the search for good forms, proving 
that the command in this case calls upon a function already available in the 
constitution of the subject. That the forms become poorer when the atten- 
tion is drawn to the sequence can only mean, that clarity of perception and 
association are factors in which this constitutional availability plays a less 
important role; it also signifies that for best performance undivided, uncon- 
ditional, and very narrowed concentration of attention is necessary. If the 
subject is commanded to interpret as many "W& as possible, a different result 
is obtained. Subjects who interpret many wholes in the usual test are able 
to increase the number by spurring on their volition to make complicated 
performances. On the other hand, those subjects who give few Ws in the 
usual test prove their inadequacy for this special one so that the result is 
little different from the usual. Naturally, the result is similar if they are 
urged to produce the finest apperceptive type possible. 

The percent animal answers allows two types of investigation; the sub- 
ject may be requested to interpret animal figures only, or to interpret no 
animal figures at all, rather anything else, and as many other things as 
possible, i. e., the widest variability of responses. The first of these tasks is 



easily accomplished by normals. As before, the number of M*s, W's, and 
original responses will be decreased by the establishment of a goal idea. 
Aside from this, the result differs little from that of the usual test, indicat- 
ing that the request to interpret animal figures only touches upon a constitu- 
tional ability which is easily available to the subject. This is the ability to 
form stereotyped associative patterns. 

The request for the greatest variability possible, and the exclusion of all 
animal figures frequently leads to a complete failure to answer at all. Only 
subjects who have a very small percent of animal responses in the ordinary 
test are able to complete this task with ease and without marked general 
changes in the results. This finding indicates that the freedom of associations, 
the fluidity of thought processes, represents a function which is amenable to 
conscious control only when it is present to a considerable degree habitually. 

Original responses do not lend themselves to this form of testing. In the 
usual experiment each subject gives his personal ideas, and each considers 
his interpretations original. If original or imaginative responses were 
requested particularly, the subject would not interpret differently from what 
he woold do in the usual test. At most, he might attempt daring combinatory 
responses, making an attempt to express originality. 

There remain the M and C responses, and the problem of the correlation 
of M and W comes up for discussion. Those subjects who, in the ordinary 
experiment, give numerous M's, can increase the number of good kinaesthetic 
responses with relative ease. On the other hand, those who interpret few 
M's in the usual test, produce few or very poor ones in the control. Kin- 
aesthesias represent, therefore, a function which can be increased in effect 
by the setting up of a goal only if present as a definite tendency in the per- 
sonality. 

As for the color answers, subjects who produce no color answers ordin- 
arily, can produce them when requested to include color in their inter- 
pretations; they will, however, consist largely of FC's, only rarely will the 
impulsive C appear. The awkwardness of the depressives and the pedants, 
and the tension apparent in neurotic emotion suppressors when they handle 
color is quite remarkable. For them, this is an unpleasant task, and may 
even arouse feelings of inadequacy. The number of color responses is easily 
increased by those subjects who produce several ordinarily. The relation- 
ships with the other factors vary widely according to the individual subject 
in this test. 

The task may be reversed in the case of both M and C. Subjects who 
produce numerous M's or C*s may be asked to suppress them. Since many 
M's usually occur with a relatively large number of C's, we deal with the 
same subjects in giving this group of special tests. It is very difficult for 
these subjects to suppress M's and C's completely and they find the task irk- 
some, though in a manner quite different from the reaction of depressives 



69 

to the opposite problem. They feel in, 

ditions. The task is when M C at the 

time, their attention to the of 

Color responses, therefore, probably do an 

tutional tendency in the same way that the IPs were to. They to 

represent, rather* a more general which be In 

some of the subjects at least, by the setting up of a conscious so 

color answers may be aroused, increased, or inhibited. This 
tion is the total affective pattern, the afCectivity, of kin- 

aesthesias and the affectivity are peculiarly bound together. It is 
to suppress either alone; it is easier to suppress both at the time. This 

suppression is accomplished by means of those factors which possible 

consciously directed good form visualization, namely, the subject's maintain- 
ing a conscious, sharp control over the associative processes. 

The components of intelligence respond to conscious influences as follows; 

I. Increase in productiveness: 

1. Ability to give constant, active attention (F+, sequence). 

2. Clarity of perceptions and of associative processes in assimilation 



3. Ability to control and discipline the logical function (sequence and 
apperceptive types). 

4. Ability to form stereotyped associatives sets (A e /&), 

IL Increase of productiveness absent, except when the conscious willing 
is abetted by individual constitutional tendency: 

1. Energy of associative activity (W). 

2. Freeing of associations from stereotyping associative sets (A%). 

3. Ability to produce original associations (Orig.). 

4. Faculty of winner creation^ (M). 

As a general rule it may be said that a conscious, directed, increase in 
productiveness in respect to those general functions collected under I above, 
is followed by a significant decrease in productiveness in respect to those 
constitutionally determined functions differential as opposed to general 
gathered under EL In contrast to this, a consciously cwilled increase in those 
functions under II does not necessarily lead to a decrease in productiveness 
of those under I, although there is a tendency in that direction. Furthermore, 
the abilities of the first group can be learned, while those of the second are 
of the nature of talents. 

The affectivitf cannot b* 'tlribtrtrdlo"elter group. It eludes all attempts 
at classification. In general, however, the conclusion may be drawn that the 
affectivity is stabilized by an increase in productiveness of the group I fac- 
tors. Attention is a forfct^aiLe^ Con- 

centration is stability of affect to the highest degree. Where there is an 



_ 70 

Increase of productivenesb of the faculties in group If, the affectivity is 
usually more unstable. 



3. Effect of on the Components of Intelligence. 

In general, the term mood<> or mood disturbance Includes depression and 
states resembling depression, and elation and manic-Iike states. The materia 1 
at hand Is not sufficient to take up the many mixed and otherwise differ- 
entiated moods/ A single special case must be mentioned, however; it is the 
state of being in a good humor 1 . 

Depressed mood (see Table \fIII) improves the visualization of forms, 
increases rigidity of sequence, decreases the number of W 9 s, makes the ap- 
perceptive type poorer, diminishes the variability of answers, diminishes the 
number of original answers, increases the percent animal answers. The num- 
ber of M's is diminished, frequently to zero or very near that level. Depressed 
mood causjgMll^^ responses in practically 

every case. ^-~~-"~*-____ ~ 

Hypomanic mood makes the form visualization poorer and the sequence 
less rigid. The number of Ws is increased, the apperceptive type is of better 
quality, the animal percentage smaller, the variability of the responses, the 
number of original answers and the number of M responses increased, and 
color responses are relatively frequent in this mood. 

The observations on the effect of depressed mood on the test are applic- 
able in psychotic depressions as well. It does not hold, however, that actual 
psychotic elation shows the same effect as that observed as due to hypomanic 
mood. In manic states the number of Ws is smaller than in cases with hypomanic 
mood, the apperceptive type is of poorer quality, the variability less, and 
there are fewer original answers. The number of M and Cjoesfwtses is, how- 
ever, increased somewhat in manic states, but^^rTff^v^meiits are likely to be 
poorly visualized. The percent animal answers is only a little lower than it 
is in depressed moods. 

This means that in depressed mood, especially in psychotic depression, 
all of those factors which are determined by an increase in the control of 
associations are most accentuated. In contrast to this, all of those factors 
dependent upon emotionally charged energy of associative activity and on 
freedom of association are very greatly reduced. In hypomanic mood even 
more than in actual elation, the reverse is the ^^^^^ot^Aos^,^^^^' which 
are favorably influenced by conscious direction and ability to concentrate 
are reduced. All of those factors which have Jtheir basis in increased energy 
of associative activity and in components iffhtehf'are resistant to conscious 

direction are increased in these moods. ' 

^ 

1 German Wohigelauntheit. 



Those factors of by are 

to be more in In 

tors not to conscious control, as M C arc 

in elation in The In 10 

extent, conceivable as the of in 

not conform of however, for In 

the number of Ws Is smaller, the is the 

tive type Is of poorer quality, the of Is 

is the case in hypomanie moods. These latter 
reverse relationships if elation were simply an of 

mood. (It Is, of course, possible that my material not ail the 

varied types of manic states). The fact the four factors 

do not show the same findings as do the others Indicates the of 

associative activity and the freedom of association (very pheno- 

mena) are prevented in some way from being accentuated as 
mood is replaced by actual elation. The reason for an un- 

answered question. 

Good humor >% our special case of mood mentioned above, 
features in common with hypomaaic mood. When this mood prevails, the 
animal percentage is greatly reduced and the variability of 
the number of original answers is much larger, the number of Ws is increased 
and the apperceptive type is of better quality. The number of "M C 

responses equals that observed in elation, but poorly visualized U*s are rare. 

Comparing the observations in elation, hypomanic mood, and good 
hmor, we find that both elation and the state being in a cgood tumor* are 
derivatives of hypomanic mood. Those factors which do not show the 
expected values in cases of elation, are present in expected values in g00d 
humor . The energy of associative activity and freedom of association are 
greater in the state of good humor than is the case in hypomanic m0d 
while in elation these components are reduced below the level observed in 
hypomanic mood. Those components which are prevented from retching 
their highest function in elation, namely, those which can be consciously con- 
trolled, are seen to be most effective in ^good humors. The freedom of 
association typical of a subject in a good humor makes Ms experimental 
result more like that of a scattered schizophrenic than that of an elated 
subject. 

Clinically, the main difference between psychotic elation and the state of 
being in a good humor is the absence of the push of physical activity in 
the latter. From this fact the supposition arises that it may be this urge to 
activity, the increased motility, which prevents the functions of freedom of 
association and energy of associative activity from appearing as expected in 
elation. The absence of this urge to activity in good humor allows full 
play of the functions in question, freedom of association, energy of associative 



72 

activity, and ability for iimer creation. (In a clinical sense, these functions 
give rise 10 clever ideas, wit, quick repartee, the ability to be emotionally 
responsive, and the ability to become enthusiastic, etc.). 

The supposition outlined in the last paragraph above, leads to the assump- 
tion that the factors which are essentially inner or self-determined and are 
expressed primarily in sensations of motion in the test, are in some way 
opposed to physical motility, the actual execution of motion. 

I would like to add an example so that this conclusion is not left simply 
hanging in air. Dreams are inner or selfdelermined productions and kie- 
aesthesias play an important role in them *. On awakening, necessary move- 
ments, physical motion* begins at once. This movement sets the dreams aside. 
There is, however, a way to recall dreams: lie perfectly motionless on awaken- 
ing in order not to cover up the kinaesthesias of the dream by present phys- 
ical movement. This scheme works if it is not negated by an attempt to 
consciously direct the attention, for this would oppose the revealing of the 
more unconscious functions. That is, if one immediately on awakening sets 
up the goal to lie quietly by conscious effort, the kinaesthesias are likely to 
be cut out at once. 



4. Interrelations of Movement and Color Responses. 

Experienc Types 2 . 
Introversion, Extratention, Goartafion. 

Certain conclusions and generalizations may be drawn by study of the 
relationship between movement and color responses. In the following dis- 
cussion, the color answers are given values as described above, the unit being 
the CF responses: 1 CF = I, 1 FC = V*, 1 C = I 1 /* units. 

It was noted above that certain material in the discussion of M and C 
responses would be subject to later correction. The 
and C*s, important as this is as representing the inner 



and the emotional factors in a subject, is not, in itself, sufficiently repre- 
sentative of the actual conditions. The essential data coaceiiu^be-^refartioiF* 
ship between M's and Cs. 

Table IX illustrates the findings concerning these two factors. It does not 
consider the form responses, but the various possibilities of relationship be- 
tween M's and C*s only. The absolute numbers of these factors increases 
reading from the top to the bottom of the table. The middle column com- 
prises those cases in which M's and C*s occur in equal numbers. At the top 
of this column are found those cases with M's and C's, that is, those who 
gave form answers exclusively. To the left of the central column" is the field 

1 See Hourly Void, t)ber den Traum. O.Klemm, Leipzig, 1910 and 1912. 

2 German = Erlebnistypus. 



73 



8, 



. 
"I 



Si 

II 
II 



I 1 

r 



J3 
H 



i 


i 




! 


J i 




u -5 


O U U 


o 




*""! MS 


01 s i w JS 




JU 


Si , "3 , 




S .2 

< *g 


| 1 ! | S 

s a : s . 3 1 | 




o S 


o 


O ; 


- a 

iw 




! 






. a 




I 
J 


u *7" 


9 s 


1 




en 


u .2 g 








_ -a _ 


* Js 








*g ^ 


s I i 










^ -a * 






* !P 


"^ ^ 


J2 






S 5 


^ * 






s^ 


^ *"S 


5 






ff 


cc .g 


u .* 2 . 










3 o t 








a~ s ' i 43 ^u j 

f5 ! J pc; a- * ... 








ei A^ 


fiL * ** U 

* J* 










*J5 1** *< 










' J K 


c 






*~^ 




*"" o 

> 

** 

r , AS 

dip nXJ & 

2 S 


U 

rH 


U 

s ' 


3 M 3 C 
1 
ipulsion neurotics 

1 


2 * aw * **3 

1^3* J? fcS 
u g g ^ 

M * 2 H3 g * 

a B 2 .2 .3 .9 

*a o d *s S fi 
* 2 *a JS ^ o o 

X e> l S *5 *** 
*> fl ** o w 

X H o h iu 


|i 






S 
O 


55- 5 ***** ** 











<g u H 
"g g u u 








M 


u -5 * A 






w ? 


S 


Ji *^ 






N 
r-f 


CO 


H "S 






> 




S *S o 






S ^ 




&g) a* 






O 


U 


g ^^ ^* 






<M O 










O 


f"( 


U 5 S 








* 


^ s 










fa 










a o 




^ 






& 




M 






*s *i 




OB 

at 






O W 




1 


u 

1 


U 

O 


U I 1 

T3 J 

.g ^ 






S J* 


JS 


ss 


S 8 




"" I 


CM 




H | 




O 










d 










74 



Table X. 



Color 

2. Schizophrenics. 









M DC 
Simple 










Demented 




1 M 


C 




1 M 1C 


M 1 C 








Frequently cata- 


Completely 








lonics in interval 


abuiic 


2 M 


C 


2 M 1 C 


2 M 2 C 


1 M 2 C M 2 C 






| 


Mild 


Somewhat scattered | 






Stable, wellpreser- 


catatonics 


cases with Hebepiirenics 






Ted paranoids 


1 


motor excitement j 


x M 


A r 


M>C 


x M x C 


M<C M x C 


Paranoies 


Productive 


Severely 


Scattered cats- Hebeplireiiics 






paranoids 


catatonic and 


tonics with motor Querulous 








blocked cases 


excitement 



Tmbie XL 



and Color Responses. 
5. Manic-Depressives. 





M C 




I M C 


Depressed 


M 1 C 


i 


I M 1C 


i 


x M C MC 


x M x c m < c 


M x C 





Manics 





Hfovem 


Lent anil Color Meii|ione* 




Table XII. 


4, Epileptics, 





M 


C 




1 M C 1 M 


1 C 


M 1 C 
Slow 

Dementia 


x M C M>C x M x C 
Epileplold 


M<C M x C 
Rapid Dementia with 

Epilepsy and Imbecility 



Table XIII. 



Mcr 



lent amI Colo 
5. Organic Cases. 



M C 

Arteriosclerotic 
Dementia 


1 M C 1 M 

i 


1 C 


M 1 C 

1 


1 

xMxC M>C xM 


x C M < C 


1 j 
M x C 


Koraakoff 


Paresis 


Senile 


Paychasis 




Dementia 



_ 75 

in which movement the to the 

left, the number of M*s Is to CTs so 

that the outer left-hand Cs and M's 

is true In the right of the as The 

relative number of M's to as the of 

answers decreases; the reerse Is true, of course, In the 

left to right. 

This scheme of presentation Indicates 

1. Both M and C responses (Middle column^ top), 

2. Many M*s matched by many Cs column, bottom), 

3. M*s only, C responses absent (Left outside column) . 

4. C's only, M responses absent (Right outside column). 

This scheme Is to be considered as a sort of blank temperature chart, not 
as a pattern Into which results are to be forced. Let us examine It to see 
how the actual observations do fit into scheme. 

Tables IX to XIII illustrate the findings In normals (including several of 
the neuroses). In feeblemindedness, In schizophrenia, in depressive 

psychoses, epilepsy, and In cases with organic brain disease. 1 most repeat 
at this point that the findings* especially those of some of the psychoses, 
need further testing and review, since the series of cases at my does 

not allow definite conclusions to be drawn. It is possible such 

review, the observations as shown In this scheme would have to be shifted 
here and there. 

Various methods of study present themselves for consideration in the 
discussion of the five schemes presented in Tables IX to XIII. Identical 
In each of the schemes might be studied to compare the types of normal and 
mentally 111 subjects who show the same M C relationship; Tables I to VIII 
might be examined to determine how the components of intelligence fit into 
the scheme. Or the study might be oriented around the etiology of M and C 
responses as discussed above. It Is, however, of particular interest to study 
Tables IX to XIII first, leaving the correlation with previous findings for 
later discussion. 

A glance at the tables shows the left half of each to fee less filled in than 
the right. In the scheme for normals, the left side is occupied by subjects 
with intelligence differentiated on the basis of nner life, Independent 
thinkers, creative individuals. (This Is, of course, no criterion of value. The 
question of what these individuals in which M responses predominate actually 
produce is not pertinent at this time. It is simply a fact that something will 
be produced.) In the scheme for the schizophrenics, paranoids are found in 
the left half of the table. These patients have more or less systematized ideas 
of persecution and grandeur, but we must note that the delusions are tse!f- 
created. Paranoids are also found on the right side of the table, but these 
are invariably cases whose delusions are scattered and show no trace of 



76 

systematization. The Korsakoff patients, perhaps not all of them, are also 
found on the left side of the table; these cases are characterized by the Joy 
they find in confabulating. On the side of the schemes where kinaesthesias 
predominate are found, then, all those subjects, regardless of whether they 
are normal or ill, who would rather live in their thoughts, even more often, 
in their fantasies, than adapt to the world outside themselves. On the right 
half of the schemes are, among normals, the practical subjects, the light- 
hearted, the flighty, those with more reproductive than creative intelli- 
gences. Feebleminded subjects and morons and imbeciles are also found on 
the right. The schizophrenics are represented here by the motor excitements 
and the scattered catatonic states, by hebephrenia and by perhaps all 
querulous schizophrenic patients. All epileptics are seen to be in the right 
half of the table, though it is possible that an occasional epileptoid might be 
found who would fall in the group on the left. All organic cases are found 
in the right half of the table with the exception of the Korsakoff patients 
and the arteriosclerotic dements. 

But contrasting the two sides of the schemes is not such a simple matter. 
There are creative subjects who fall on the right, and subjects with repro- 
ductive intelligence whose results place them on the left. We will see many 
such exceptions in the further discussion of the matter. Some of these will 
be only apparent exceptions, for it must not be forgotten that when a sub- 
ject falls into the middle of the left half of the scheme, we deal not with 
the entire exclusion of color and complete dominence of kinaesthesias, but 
with a predominance of kinaesthesias. It is a more or less relationship, not 
an absolute, categorical this or that. 

Color responses have proved to be the representative of the affectivity 
and the rule is, the more color in the test, the greater the emotional insta- 
bility of the subject, the more kinaesthesias, the more stable the affectivity. 
This conclusion obviously agrees with the schemes which have been presented. 
On the left half of the tables, where kinaesthesias are predominant, we find 
more stable affectivity than on the opposite side. On the right are found the 
<cflighty, the lighthearted, and normals who make emotional adaptions 
easily. Feebleminded subjects who react to their every passing emotion are 
found here, together with all epileptics and all organic cases except depressed 
arteriosclerotic dements and Korsakoffs. The latter two types of organic 
brain disease are accompanied by more stable affect than the group as a 
whole. In contrast, on the left are found those who are difficult to change 
in their emotional tone, who are more stable, more taciturn, more intro- 
verted. 

One can see at a glance that the subjects with stable affectivity are on 
the left side of the tables, those on the right are more labile. Lability of 
affect must be considered here in its broadest sense, including the noifmal 
capacity for emotional rapport. On the left are those subjects who adapt 



_ 77 

with difficulty; on the to arc so as 

excessive lability does not prevent It, for 

adaptions to be are not as may be in 

phrenic subjects. 

It must be the not a 

demarcation between two entirely different types. It Is, a of 

more or less; on the left capacity for Dinner life% for 

and on the right, the reverse of this. 

The concept capacity for emotional rapport which 

be called the normal affective lability, may be by 

means of the schemes. One most 

capacity for rapport. This capacity for Into rapport be 

Intensive, very little extensive as It is in the shut-in dif- 

ficulty in making contacts, but, once he has made shows he is 

to get into close personal rapport. There may be great capacity for 
rapport rather than intensive, as in the case of the opportunist who is every- 
body's friend, is a hail fellow, well met, is forgotten as soon as lie 

is gone. Bolfa intensive and extensive rapport may be possible, but is 

rare, occurring generally only in very talented people occasionally in 

hypomanics. Finally, rapport may be weak both intensively and extensively. 
This is the case in subjects in depressive moods, with single-minded 
men, bureaucrats, pedants, and rigid, narrow individuals. These are capable 
of intellectual rapport only. 

Those who are capable of more intensive than extensive rapport are 
found on the left side of the schemes. They have more stable affectivity 
and are, at the same time, subjectively oriented by nature. Also on this side 
are found as a clinical example, those paranoids who can get into very in- 
tensive rapport with a member of the family, a friend or a physician, 
though they appear inimical to the whole world. The fact that the delusions 
invariably shatter any intellectual rapport proves nothing as regards ability 
to get into emotional rapport. Normal life presents an analogy to this situa- 
tion in the tendency of the introspective individual to idealize his friends. 
That is, he attributes qualities to his friends which they do not possess in 
reality, or at least not to the extent he gives them credit for. In his thoughts, 
the intellectual adaption is very defective, the affective response increasing 
the deficiency. 

In the right half of the schemes are those who are capable of more ex- 
tensive than intensive rapport. These are the masters at affective adaptions, 
the practical people, the skillful, the light-hearted. Here, too, are the hebe- 
phrenic schizophrenics who are always ready to speak to whomever is about, 
and the querulous cases ever ready to tell whomever will listen the story of 
their legal battles. Also the epileptics who expect sympathy from everyone 



_ 78 

they meet, and the paretics and senile dements who greet each new face as 
an old acquaintance. 

Capacity for intellectual rapport is reduced when lability of affect is too 
marked* just as it is when stability of affect is very great. IE these cases the 
affect becomes egocentric. When the affect is extremely labile, the desire 
for adaption becomes, quite unconsciously, the desire for others to the 

adaption, not the subject with the labile affect himself. 

Capacity for simultaneous existence of both extensive and intensive rap- 
port, whether the capacity be great or small, is only found in those subjects 
wto fall in the middle column of the schemes* These possible situations will 
be taken up again later. Before doing this we must look for further differen- 
tiations between those subjects who interpret kinaestheslas principally, and 
those who tend to interpret color more frequently. 

On the right of the schemes are found many subjects showing motor ex- 
citement. Closer examination reveals that subjects characterized by precise, 
calm, phlegmatic or awkward motility, motiiity stabilized in some manner, 
are grouped in the left half of the scheme. On the right, in contrast to this, 
are found subjects showing motor excitement, also the skillful, the ready 
and willing* personalities, the quick, vivacious, agile subjects. These relations 
are easily seen in the scheme for normals, but this does not tell the whole 
story, Motility, like affective response, is, more or less, subject to conscious 
direction, and capacity for this direction may be acquired. The direction in 
which this control needs to be exercised is quite clear; calm motility needs 
a freedom from restraints, restless motility needs development of inhibitions. 
Undisciplined restless motility is seen in the constant push of activity in the 
manic, and in certain intoxications. Undisciplined calm motility is a sort 
of phlegmatic, awkward carelessness. Restless motility when controlled leads 
to skill; calm motility when disciplined, probably results in precision. 

As a matter of fact, the skillful and adroit are found on the right in the 
schemes, the awkward and clumsy subjects on the left. 

The following table furnishes a short summary of the findings: 
Kinaesthesias Predominant: Color Predominant: 

More individualized intelligence Stereotyped intelligence 

Greater creative ability , More reproductive ability 

More inner life More outward life 

Stable affective reactions Labile affective reactions 

Less adaptable to reality More adaptable to reality 

More intensive , than extensive More extensive than intensive 

rapport rapport 

Measured, stable motility Restless, labile motility 

Awkwardness, clumsiness* Skill and adroitness. 

Here, again, we find two different types. Again they are not *to be con- 
sidered as absolutes, but as mixtures, with predominance of one or the other, 



_ 79 ~ 

to in In Nor fin !he 

characteristics of the two aa 

other. Tiie Is not If a ha* 3 M's and 

5 Cs, for instance, we say any is la 

the personality to a degree* or a of 

lion of intelligence to a of 

of the characteristics is by as the 

conscious logical functioning, by the 

functioning through self-discipline. 

A further caution be Indicated. The of de- 

noted in passing from the of the to the left, i C M the 

aesthetic side, differs from that on the opposite or color The most 

vaguely defined are those in or the middle. In the 

to the left, the types of subjects encountered 

of the qualities associated with kinaesthesias as outlined above. The nearer 
the proportion xM/OC (x = a lat^e number) Is approached, the more 
it is that we deal with the awkward, introspective type. The Is 

arrested at xM/OC. Subjects who have many WTs and no Cs are quite dif- 
ferent in some respects at least from those who have a few C's with the many 
MV In passing from the middle column to the right side of the scheme, the 
type of subject who interprets colors predominantly becomes more clear; 
there is, however, the middle ground between the middle and outside column 
where the type is indistinct. It is rare to find color answers in greater pro- 
portion than 1M/2C (provided the number of M's is above 2) in the normal 
subject, and when this occurs it is usually a pathological finding. 

For the present, I will designate the predominantly kinaesthetic group as 
the M type, the group with color predominant, the C type. While these 
groups may appear as contrasting types, it must be kept in mind that this is 
only true in a clinical, not a psychological sense. Psychologically, the types 
cannot be said to be contrasting, any more than one could speak of move- 
ment and color as antitheses. M type simply means that a certain group of 
functions is developed to a marked degree. The opposite of this would be 
poor development of these functions. This does not mean that it would be- 
come the C type, for C type refers to another group of functions entirely, 
and these functions may, like the others, be markedly or poorly developed. 
What appears clinically as antithesis, is, psychologically, simply variation. 

A further conclusion may be drawn, from the table of the qualities of 
the M and C types: the more kinaesthesias, the less motor activity, the more 
motor activity, the less kinaesthesias. This same observation proved to be 
true when the differentiation between elation and good humor was made 
earlier. Elation, having the urge to physical activity as a component symptom, 
presents fewer M"s than are seen in good humor, where this urge does not 



80 

exist. Klnacsthetic digrams, therefore, act as inhibitors of physical activity; 
motor activity inhibits kinaesthetic eegrams. 

There is a very close relationship between motility and affectivity, almost 
a parallelism. For illustrations of this point, one needs only to turn to emo- 
tional gestures. The same terms are used in both fields; one speaks of motor 
or emotional excitement, and stable / and unstable* may be applied to 
affective states as well as to motility. 

Unstable affectivity, when disciplined and restrained, results in emo- 
tional adaptability and rapport. Unstable motility when controlled and 
restrained results in motor adaptability, skill. Optimum control of both af- 
fectivity and motility results in Asocial skill . This sort of restraint is made 
possible by the conscious self-control which is required in clear visualization 
of forms; it is not mere chance that we speak of social forms. Too great 
a control of motility and affect changes emotional rapport into etiquette and 
motility into cstiffness*. Kinaesthesias and color responses invariably dis- 
appear in such <KSuper-proiuctions of conscious control, regardless of 
whether the state is consciously induced at the moment, or is the automatic 
result of long self-discipline. The individual who is completely controlled by 
rules of etiquette approaches the pedantic personality, which, as we have 
noted above, gives neither If nor C responses, but a maximal F+ percent. 

Kinaesthesias stabilize the motility as well as the affectivity. This is a 
definite conclusion from this discussion. There are, however, some facts which 
appear to negate the conclusion. Many subjects of the M type makes gestures 
accompanying the interpretation, of movement in the figures. Dreams, the 
origin of which would appear to be kinaesthetic engrains, very frequently lead 
to motor neural impulses. This is true in normal dreams, but is even more 
marked in somnambulism, in states of semi-consciousness, and in delirium. In 
all these states the movements may exhibit strong emotional coloring. In the 
situations listed here, then, kinaesthesias do not cause stability of affect and 
motility, but instability. 

In all of the states mentioned there is one common factor, namely, the 
fonction du reel, the practiced, conscious logic of adaptability is excluded, 
or is almost excluded. The factor represented by good forms in the usual 
test is entirely lacking under these conditions. This is also true in the case 
of the subjects who demonstrate the movements they are interpreting in their 
many M responses. It is these subjects who surrender quite passively to every 
whim during the test, regardless of whether they are or are not conscious of 
the constitutional energy of associative activity, of freedom of association, 
ana ability in personalized creation. The C type, on the other hand, searches 
actively for interpretations. The constitution of the subjects of this type re- 
quires the inclusion of the utmost conscious control of associations. Subjects 
of the M type exclude this sort of control as far as possible, and thus ap- 



proach the sort of reaction characteristic of For the M type, 

tiie test is play; for the C type, it is work. 

We may summarize with several conclusions: 

L Kinaestfiesias stabilize the affect as well as the motility. 

2. Consciously acquired reasoning 

kinaesthesias as well as affective responses motility. 

3. Consciously acquired! reasoning and maximal logical 

press kinaesthesias completely and stabilize motility affective res- 

ponse in the service of maximal concentration. This is in the 

muscle tension characteristic of concentrated attention. 

The M and C types will, therefore, appear entirely different 
other, varying according to the effectiveness of conscious or habitual 
function. These considerations will come up again in connection with the 
relationship of factors in the middle columns of the schemes. 

The M type shows the following characteristics: 1. Predominance of per- 
sonalized productivity; 2. Intensive rapport; 3. Stable affect and motility, 
awkwardness, insufficient adaptiMlity to reality and insufficient extensive 
rapport. Among many educated people the type is designated colloquially as 
introverted. 

This term intro version originates in psychoanalytical terminology, and 
was first used by Jung. The term then meant introversio libidinis sexualis 9 
in the broad sense indicated by Freud. It defined the situation in which a 
part of the love which previously belonged to a real love object, and should 
still belong to it, was introverted, was turned inward, into the subject and 
there caused increase in fantasy i . When Jung widened Freud's libido con- 
cept so that it comprised all manifestations of the will (in the sense of Schopen- 
hauer), the concept of introversion changed as well. It now meant detach- 
ment from reality and submersion into fantasy; The inner world gains in 
(personal) reality to the same extent that the (universal) reality loses in 
emphasis and determining power 2 . Up to this point, introversion was con- 
sidered a pathological process. 

More recently Jung has abandoned the position that all introversion is 
pathological. He now distinguishes two types of psychological reaction, the 
introverted and extraverted types. The basis of the one (extrovert) is the 
affect, of the other (introverted), thinking. Pathology appears only when 
the basic factor comes into conflict with the non-differentiated and largely 
subconscious accessory function (reasoning in the extrovert, affect in the 
introvert) 8 . 

1 Jung, (Jber die Konflikte der Idndlichen Seele. Jahrbuch fur psychoanalytisciie trad 
psychopathologische Forsclmngen, Vol. II, p. 38 (1911). 

2 Jung, Wandlungen mid Symbole der Libido, op. cit., p. 159 (1912). 

3 Jung, Die Psychologie der unbewufiteu Prozesse. Verlag Rascher. Zurich 1917, p. 58 

and 77. 

Rorsciiacb, Psychodiagnostics. 6 



82 

Meanwhile, common language has taken over the word Introverslon. 
Some of the developmental ideas of the concept still stick to it, and these 
do not help in clarifying its meaning. In general, however, the introverted 
person is understood to be one who is turned in upon himself, who lives 
more within himself than in the outer world, and who has difficulty in his 
approach to the world outside himself. 

To remove all possibility of misunderstanding, I wish to emphasize that 
I am going to use the concept intro version in a sense which has almost 
nothing except the name in common with Jung's. The clinical picture of the 
M type as it appears from the results of this test is not the picture of intro- 
version as Jung describes it. It corresponds more closely to the concept as 
it appears in colloquial usage. 

The tendency to turn in upon one's self, is, without doubt, a universal 
human characteristic. As is the case with all other functions, this character- 
istic shows wide variations in importance in the inter-play of human func- 
tions. Aside from the importance in general functioning, it must be deter- 
mined whether the introversion is active or passive, and whether it is fixed 
or mobile. It is active to a great extent in the poet. In the catatonic, who 
simply becomes a victim of it, this tendency is passive. In the normal the 
tendency to turn in upon oneself is mobile, short-lived, and quite within 
voluntary control. The normal can shunt aside the factors which inhibit 
introversion, and can always restore adaptive function by turning his atten- 
tion to it. In schizophrenics the tendency to introversion is fixed so that they 
cannot achieve adaptation at all, or, at least, only by means of a compromise 
in the form of delusions. 

The need to make these differentiations indicates the caution necessary 
in using the term introversion. It has always had a double meaning, stand- 
ing for, first, the process of turning in upon oneself, and, second, for the 
state of being turned in upon oneself . Distinction must be drawn carefully 
between the introversion process and the introversion state. The normal sub- 
ject of the M type must not be said to be introverted, but described as 
^capable of introversion, or introversive in order to indicate that this is 
not a fixed characteristic but a mobile trait. The state of being introverted 
means the rigid dominance of introversive tendencies over the non-introver- 
sive, and this condition is pathological. A subject whose responses are pre- 
dominantly kinaesthetic, would, therefore, have to be designated pre- 
dominantly introversive. 

Introverted individuals are, colloquially, contrasted to extro verted . 
The extroverted corresponds to the C type. There is a disadvantage in this 
terminology, however, in that it might be concluded that introversion and 
extroversion are really opposites; let me repeat again that this is not true. 
The psychological processes producing introversion and extroversion are not 



opposite, but different. They are as different as and as 

motion and color. 

This difference should be in the tiseiL Yet, It 

not be correct to contrast the Inlroversive to the C type, 
latter as the adaptive type^>, for the introversive person 
ability in high degree through his conscious, logical function by Ms 

consciously acquired ways of thinking* To call the extroversbe the feeling 
type is also not correct because, while the introversive may he inten- 

sive than extensive, still there Is not emotion in this type. The 

who definitely belong to the adaptive type, obviously in the f eel- 

ing* type, are actually also members of the C type, simply represent 

variations within that group. It is more important to in the 

general characteristics of the C type. These are; 

1. the urge to live in the world outside oneself, 

2. restless motility, and 

3. unstable affective reactions. 



It is these characteristics which I would like to contrast to introversivity^> 
under the term extratensivity. (Introversion-Extratension, calling, then, the 
C type extra tensive.) A subject with 2 M and 4 C would, therefore, have 
to be designated as being more extratensive than introversive. 

We return now to Table IX on page 73 to settle the problems presented 
by the middle column of that Table. This column comprises those cases in 
which the number of C's and the number of M*s are equal* It should, there- 
fore, include those subjects in which introversive and extratensive features 
are in equilibrium. 

The uppermost entry in this column shows cases having neither M nor C 
responses. This group comprises an occasional normal subject, a few pedants 
and cases in depressive moods. Cases of simple dementia, old paranoid cases 
which have long since become indolent, psychotic depressions, and depressive 
arteriosclerotics also fall in this area of the table. These must be conditions 
in which the introversive and extratensive features are reduced to the 
minimum. 

The pedant has very good form visualization; he arranges his whole life 
according to forms. He abhors fantasy and all lability of emotional expres- 
sion. In the experiment he repeats his usual life pattern he demonstrates 
his ever-present mastery of his conscious functions over all his living, whether 
it be subjective life, or in the world outside himself. 

Psychotic and other depressions are passively stereotyped, in contrast to 
this active stereotypy of the pedants. Intro'versive and extratensive features 
are paralysed by the depressed, stable mood. The patients complain of inner 
emptiness*, of inability to think, of their stupidity, of the inability to love 
or to enjoy themselves, etc. They are always preoccupied with themselves 
exclusively, with a tormenting, constant control over themselves. 



_ 84 

Cases of simple dementia and old. Indolent paranoid cases are unimagina- 
tive, show poverty of ideas, are emotionally dull and without initiative or 
perseverance. They are always the same. Their stability is due to emotional 
dulling, to deterioration in the schizophrenic sense. 

These illustrations confirm the observation that in the conditions noted 
above the introversive and extratensive features are actually reduced and 
narrowed down. In the pedant, they are subject to suppression, in the de- 
pressed cases they are constricted because of the stable emotional set, and 
in the schizophrenics both extratensive and introversive factors are destroyed 
by the disease. I should like to propose the expression coartation to de- 
scribe these types of cases (from artus = narrow or few; coartare = to 
narrow). The cases with findings M and C would be known as coartated 
types . Those cases, primarily those in the middle column with findings 1 M 
and 1 C, I M and C, M and I C, and certain others, could be designated 
coartative types, i. e., types with a tendency to coartatioe. Except those 
cases which fall on the extreme right or left of the schemes, all other com- 
binations are called broad or dilated types, in contrast to the coartative. 

The findings M and 1 C, 1 M and C, and particularly 1 M and I C. 
are seen relatively frequently in cases with depressed moods. Such findings 
are even more common in schizophrenics who have just recovered from a 
catatonic attack and are still in that resistant, mildly depressed and at the 
same time indolent mood which so frequently follows. 

The picture changes very rapidly in passing further down the middle 
column of the schemes. Hypomanics, elated cases, definitely catatonic pic- 
tures, the epileptoid and compulsion neurotic cases are found here together 
with a few normal subjects. The latter are always very talented people. 

Introversive and extratensive features should be combined equally here, 
and both should be present to a marked degree. 

The most varied clinical pictures may be found grouped together in this 
area of the schemes. It is not easy to devise a name which expresses their 
common characteristics, and it is perhaps simplest to designate them as 
ambiequal types . 

It is noteworthy that distinctly coartative features may be observed in 
ambiequal subjects with many M's and C's. Color shock occurs during the 
test and the color responses are markedly confused and appear to surprise 
the subject himself as he gives them. Similarly with the M answers which, 
in some subjects, appear only after a number of pure form answers are given 
for each plate. Both these situations doubtlessly represent suppression pheno- 
mena. The ruling function is that controlling good form visualization; the 
kinaesthesias and the color responses are, as it were, smuggled into the 
replies against the will of the subject. This is the case in compulsion neuroses 
(see table IX) and would indicate that subjects of this class constantly check 
marked introversive and extratensive tendencies by means of ever present 



conscious control Apparently they want to 

and in doing it coartate the affectivity generally., sacrificing the for 

introversion in the process. Tiie control experiment described on 66 

showed that this was possible. A subject who Interprets if s 

C*s. told to suppress either M or C responses, to 

either, and has to set himself to interpret only forms. The with 

IMPs and C's, is the completely coartated compulsion neurotic* The com- 
pulsion neurotic is the pedant whose introversive and extratensive faculties 
are strong enough to resist total coartatlon. 

The elated cases are found at the opposite extreme from the depressions, 
both in the middle column. The psychotic depression complaints of inner 
emptiness*, and deadened eellng8, but the manic enjoys sensations of 
/inner riehness, of having a multitude of ideas* of being able to do any 
and everything. He seeks emotional rapport with anyone at any time. 

The introversive and extrateneive features which In the manic fuse into 
a harmony which the patient is certainly aware of, appear to paralyse each 
other in the catatonic case. The fusion is lacking. The catatonic is ambi- 
valent in respect to these tendencies; his attention is caught both within and 
outside himself; it is as though he were wedged between his introversive and 
extratensive tendencies. 

Epileptoid cases falling in this area are too few in my material to allow 
conclusions to be drawn; one of the cases is an epileptoid-ecstatic patient. 

We come now to the group of normals in the lower part of the middle 
column, the group with many talents. These are individuals in whom are 
combined marked introversive features including creativeness, subjectivity, 
and intensive rapport, with marked extratensivity, as shown by extensive 
rapport, ability to make sympathetic reproductions, excellent emotional ap- 
proach, and motor adroitness. These subjects could be no better grouped 
than under the name highly talented. Further clarification of this matter 
will follow later. The genius would be found near this group in the tables. 

I wish again at this stage to note the relationship between genius and 
epilepsy, between genius and compulsion neuroses, and between the last 
and manic-depressive insanity. 

The two outer columns of the schemes remain for discussion. On the left, 
in the section distinguished by a few or even several M's but no C*s, are 
found subjects with psychogenic depressions. A few cliraateric melancholias 
and paranoids with late onset of their illness and who might better be dia- 
gnosed as paranoics, were also found to fall in this column. Completely color- 
blind subjects should also appear here. No definite conclusions could be 
drawn from the available material, but there was the impression that the 
adaptability was purely intellectual, though exceedingly variable. Perhaps it 
would be justifiable to classify these cases as without extratension. It is, 
however, also possible that we deal, in the depressions, with especially effec- 



86 



tive suppression of emotions, and IE the paranoies, with particularly effec- 
tive mastery of the affect; unfortunately, the question must remain open, 

The groups of subjects giving the result M*s and x C's certainly cannot 
be designated without introversion^. Assuming that kinaesthesias represent 
the capacity for introversion, this association must be supported theoretically, 
even though all empirical results point in that direction. Also, the visuali2a- 
tion of movement has, in this series of figures, been made somewhat difficult 
purposely, so that the number of M*s is in some degree predetermined by 
the configuration of the plates. The significance of the number of M n s is. 
therefore, relative. In the control experiments with the figure of the mower 
described above, even imbeciles recognized the movement; M is only a 
relative measure of the capacity to see movement; if the task had been 
made easier, M would occur more rarely. 

The left outer column of the schemes appears to represent a particular 
type. The right, however, appears to be simply the logical extreme of extra- 
tension, i. e., egocentric extratensivity. 

The types established in this discussion are distributed in the scheme as 
shown in the following table. 

Table XIV. 







Experience Type, 








M C 








Coartated Types 




1 M 


C 


1 M 1 C 


M 1C 


I 


Coari 




yes 


Coartative Types 


x M 


C 






^Without 






extratension* ^ 


f } 


f > ^ 




M > C x M 


xC M < C OMxC 




lrt f/tuikiai vf* A vIi 


<wfiit-i3 ITvti.>f 




Types Types Adaptive Egocentric 


Types Types 






Dilated Types 





We have now available materials from which we can gather a great deal 
of information about our patient. We know how strong the introversive 
features are from the absolute number of M responses, and how strong the 
extratensive features are from the number of C answers. We know in what 
relation introversive and extratensive features stand to each other from the 
relationship of M and C responses. We know the extent of coartation or dila- 
tion of these features from the number of M"s and GTs and a few other fac- 
tors. We do not know what he experiences, but* rather, how he experiences. 
We know many of the traits and characteristics with which he goes through 



_ 87 

life, be these of associate or or a of the two. 

We do not know his experiences; we do the he 

receives experiences of subjective or objective nature, 10 he 

jects his experiences in assimilation of them. 

The conclusion of all this is that kinaesthetic color ID per- 

ception represent the most essential of the for ex- 

periencing. It is to be noted that influences are the 

apparatus, but simply represent it in this test. The of the num- 

bers of MTs and (Ts is, therefore, the expression of the type of 

the subject. 

It is always daring to draw conclusions about the way an individual ex- 
periences life from the results of an experiment. To try it on the of the 
findings of so simple an experiment as this may, at first glance, appear absurd, 
In this case, however, the conclusions are supported by many diagnostic con- 
trols, and the experience types developed have been confirmed by clinical 
observations in the psychoses. 

5* Experience Type and Living* 

The introversive and extratensive features of a subject comprise indepen- 
dent groups of psychisms, the relations of which determine the experience 
type of the individual. These features must have an entirely different mental 
basis from the conscious, disciplined thinking of the subject. Disciplined 
thinking is an acquired faculty; introversive and extrateinsive features are 
not acquired, but are inherent, primary qualities of the constitution. Disci- 
plined thinking can master and control both introversive and extratensive 
features; learning disciplined thinking is learning to control and regulate 
these features of the constitution. Disciplined thinking cannot ever replace 
the introversive and extratensive features, and when its control is exercised 
to the maximum, the apparatus on which experience depends becomes atro- 
phied and damaged, the result being stereotypy and inability to experience 
fully. 

The experience type of an individual is not his general psychogram. It 
indicates how the person experiences, but not how he lives, or toward what 
he is striving. An individual with very predominant introversive features 
may be decidedly extratensive in his behavior, though the extratensive fea- 
tures are less in evidence in the test than the introversive. Another person 
may have an extratensive experience type and appear to be introversive on 
observation, though this is a rare finding. TJiese discrepancies between the 
experience type and actual living can only be explained by the fact that the 
active energy, the effective energy at the moment, the will, the libido, or 
whatever else it may be named, is so oriented as to allow only a part of the 
faculties for experiencing to be in operation. It is instinct which transforms 



88 

the constitutional features into active tendencies. As will be apparent In later 
discussions, one can, under favorable circumstances, discover from the pro- 
tocols which part of the apparatus for experiencing is principally activated. 

The apparatus with which the individual is endowed for assimilating ex- 
periences is a much broader, more extensive instrument than that which he 
uses in living. A person has a number of registers with which he can ex- 
perience, but he uses few in the ordinary ran of living, sometimes so few as 
to leave him quite stereotyped. 

The experience type demonstrates the limits of the apparatus which the 
individual could call into the service of living. It cannot reveal, however 
except under very favorable circumstances what parts of the apparatus the 
patient actually puts to use in active living. This will become even more 
evident in the discussion of experience type and talents. 

6. Experience Type and the Components of Intelligence. 

What relationship exists between the components of intelligence and 
these experience types? Comparison of Tables I to VIII with Tables IX to 
XIV will give some information on this point. The following pages are a 
short summary of these matters. We begin with the movement responses. 

The study of the variations in the number of movement responses has 
shown that these represent the capacity for inner creativeness. The dis- 
cussion of the relation between M and C answers has shown that predomin- 
ance of M's indicates introversion. Both studies lead to the same conclusion, 
namely, that the kinaesthesias represent the tendency toward inner life, 
i e., introversion. This would appear to be an argument arriving at identical 
conclusions in the two cases because it started with identical material. To 
disprove this, we must show that those factors of the experiment which show 
definite correlation with the number of MPs are also identically correlated 
with the experience type. 

There is a constant, direct proportion between the M's and the original 
answers. The latter indicate the ability to form numerous original associa- 
tions specific to the person. At the same time, the number of O's indicates 
whether or not the subject can prevent these original associations from be- 
coming so numerous that the common mode of associations is lost. All sub- 
jects, no matter what the type or the psychoses they suffer from, who give 
predominantly good original answers must fall on the kinaesthetic side in the 
schemes for presenting the experience types. The least number of original 
responses should be seen in the coartated types, the number should be some- 
what larger in the extratensives who give M answers, and the maximum num- 
ber of 0*s should be found in the strongly introverted subjects. This proves 
to be the case. Pedants and depressed subjects have the least original answers 
and the markedly coartated compulsion neurotics show very few. The intro- 



89 

versive give far more the are 

in the introverted* up 

of extensive rapport, and awkward in motilily of 

subjects whom we have spoken of earlier as <<in the but not of it > give 

more than 50 /0 original interpretations. To say a Is 

from the world in this way in different words he is 

markedly introverted. In egocentric the of ori- 

ginal responses dwindles down to zero, the are less and 

clearly visualized. 

The percentage of animal answers is the of two 

isms, first, the ability to form stereotyped patterns, 

the ability to drop these patterns as indicated by freedom fluidity of 

associations. The first of these psychisms is present in all of 

it is only in the most scattered schizophrenics that the freedom of association 
becomes so marked that stereotyped disappear entirely* If 

ability to form patterns is so strong that it becomes a constant inclination 
to indulge in particular series of associative ideas, whether by choice or un- 
willingly, stereotypy immediately appears, and is expressed in the test by a 
high percentage of animal answers. Introversive subjects show a small A per- 
cent, in the adaptative extratensive it is large, and even higher percentages 
are seen in the coartated and coartative subjects. Egocentric extratensives 
either show a high percentage of animal responses or some other figure than 
the animal will act as stereotypy-indicator and be present In a high pro- 
portion. 

There is also a correlation between the number of W responses and the 
M's. This is best understood in terms of the energy of associative activity 
which has its basis in the constitution of the subject. This energy of associa- 
tive activity can be increased, as we have noted heretofore, by a conscious 
or unconscious desire to perform in a complicated way. There are then two 
factors, first, the energy of associative activity which is related to the free- 
dom of associations which is also more or less constitutional, and, secondly, 
a trend toward complicated performance which has emotional origins. Intro- 
versives have the most W responses; extratensives may have more under 
certain conditions, namely, when the emotional set is particularly effective. 
Coartated and egocentric extratensive subjects show the least W*s. 

Study of apperceptive types leads to similar conclusions. The results with 
introversive subjects reveal a much richer apperceptive type than is the case 
with the extratensives, and these subjects achieve the result with ease. In the 
introversive subjects, the most common apperceptive type is V D. with "W 
predominant; in extratensives, the most frequent type is W D, with the D 
more or less accentuated. In coartated and egocentric extratensive subjects, 
the apperceptive type is of poor quality. 

The case is different in the matter of sequence. The coartated and co- 



QA _ 

%/\j 

artative show the most rigid sequence, and it is not unusual to find very rigid 
sequence in those cases which fall in the adaptative groups, but near the 
top of the scheme, where M and C answers are few. Optimal rigidity of 
sequence is found in all the dilated types across the bottom f the schemes. 
and mixed in with them in this area are found the excessively free and 
scattered types. The rigidity of sequence, dependent on the ability to 
discipline and properly distribute the Iogical energy , is correlated with no 
factor in the test except the F+ t %. The rigidity of sequence has no regular 
distribution in the schemes of experience types; this corroborates the con- 
elusion that it is more independent of the introversive and extratensive fea- 
tures of the personality than is any other factor thus far discussed. 

Clear form visualization as a factor shows similar relationships. Best 
visualization is seen in the coartated, and high F+ percentages are frequent 
in the Introversive and, occasionally in the adaptative extratensives. The 
visualization is less clear on the a right side of the schemes where the ego- 
centric extratensives are found. The clarity that the latter group achieves 
only after great effort, is easily accomplished by the introversive subjects by 
reason of their richer store of engrams. The greater availability of engrains 
is the reason the introversives are able to produce clearer forms than are 
the extratensives. 

In the course of the discussion we have frequently mentioned the varia- 
tion In the Intensity of the perception on the part of the subject that he is 
carrying out an assimilative performance in Interpreting the figures. This 
runs a parallel course with the findings concerning the visualization of forms. 
It is felt most strongly by the coartated, except that the simple dements of 
this group are less conscious of It. The adaptative extratensives are next to 
the coartated in perceiving that the task is an assimilative performance; they 
dislike interpreting the figures and consider the task tiresome. On the other 
hand, though they may be conscious that they are interpreting, the Intro- 
versives nevertheless consider the task a pleasant one. The groups to the 
extreme right on the extratensive side of the schemes do not feel that they 
are interpreting, but believe themselves to be simply perceiving. These give 
very unclear form responses. 

Thus far, I have said little about the amblequal group because it allows 
no general conclusions. In the very talented group, the components of In- 
telligence fall into the same relationships as is the case with the introversives; 
in manics, however, the relationships are like those of the extratensive group 
of subjects -and include many characteristics of the egocentric extratensives. 
Catatonics are in the middle, showing a mixture of extratensive and intro- 
versive features in the components of intelligence as in the other factors. 

Table XV presents another summary of the findings. This Table is com- 
plete only if the classification of the components of intelligence into those 
capable of being increased by conscious effort on the part of the subject, 



and those not capable of Increase, Is in while It 
(see 69). Those to by conscious 

are the following: L the number of forms: 2, the of per- 
ception; 3, the accuracy of the associative process in |F~--|; 4, 

the ability to discipline distribute the ^logical energy ^ (sequence ap- 

perceptive type): 5, the ability to form stereotyped f per- 
cent animal responses). Those components to 

increase are: 1, the energy of associative activity (W): 2, tin* of 
Table XV. 





Coartated Type 






M 






Orig. 






A ,'o large 






W few 






Appercfptire poor 






Sequence rigid 






Form good 




Interpretation recognized as sue 


h, 




with feeling of discomfort. 




Introversive Type 


Extratensive Types 


M many 


Adaptative Type 


Egoc&mtnc Tgp 


Orig. many -f 


M few 


M 


A o/o small 


Orig. few + 


Orig. many 


W many 


A % large 


A /o large 


Apper- 


W medium 


V medium or few 


ceptive rich 


Apper- 


Apper- 


Sequence variable 


ceptive usually poor 


ceptive usually poor 


F generally good 
Interpretation recognized 
as such, feeling of 


Sequence usually good 
F often good 
Interpretation recognized 


Sequence loose 
F por 
Interpretation not 


pleasure. 


as such, with feeling of 


recognized as such. 




displeasure. 






Ambiequal Types 




Talented Group 


Catatonic 


Manfc 


M many 


M many 


M medium 


Orig. many -'- 


Orig. many + 


Orig. medium JU 


A /o small 


A% small 


A % large 


W many 


W many 


W medium to few 


Apper- 


Apper- 


Apper- 


ceptive rich 


ceptive rich 


ceptive medium quality 


Sequence variable 


Sequence scattered 


Sequence loose 


F usually good 


F : good and poor 


F mixed, unclear 


Interpretation recognized 


extremes mixed. 


Interpretation frequently 


as such, feeling of pleasure. 


Interpretation usually 


not recognized as such. 




recognized as such. 






with blocking. 





_ 92 

associations from stereotyped patterns (A/o); 3, the ability to make original 
associations (Original+); and, 4, the capacity for inner creation* (M). We 
have noted, that these factors are subject to increase at will only in those 
cases in which the conscious direction of the will is abetted by individual 
constitutional predisposition. From this discussion, we are now able to deduce 
the characteristics of the various types of subjects. 

The coartated, and to a considerable extent, the eoartative types are 
distinguished by the extreme predominance of those factors which can be 
increased by direction of attention to them. These are the groups distin- 
guished primarily by logical discipline. In achieving this discipline, however, 
introversive and extratensive features become atrophied; in other words, 
they sacrifice their ability to experience fully. 

The adaptative extratensives closely resemble them. Here, too, the logical 
functions are strongly predominant, frequently resulting in narrowing of the 
introversive and extratensive features, though there is not the degree of 
atrophy of these features seen in the coartated. In this group we fine! that 
the best performances of adaptability, both emotional and intellectual, are 
possible by means of conscious direction. Stereotypy, a mark of adaptability, 
also follows this general pattern more or less. 

Introversive features in the test cannot be said to be introversive tend- 
encies in actual living (see page 87); nevertheless, a case with introversive 
experience type would certainly fall in the group with introversive tendencies. 
Introversive features, extratensive tendencies, and conscious functions may 
be intermingled to a most extraordinary degree in the introversive subjects, 
so that many different personality constellations of character, intelligence, 
and modes of mentation result. 

The normal ambiequal subject combines the introversive pattern with 
strong extratensive features and tendencies. Introversive and extratensive 
features, both quite strong, are combined equally in this group. 

The normal ambiequal subject appears to fall more to the introversive 
side of the schemes, while the hypomanic (and manic) seem to fall more on 
the extratensive side. The latter combine an extratensive pattern with in- 
creased introversive activity. In general, hypomanics show fewer M and C 
responses than normal ambiequal subjects. Furthermore, the function of the 
factors subject to conscious control is more developed in the normal ambi- 
equal than it is in hypomanics. One more point must be mentioned here. 
Manics show motor excitement, but normal ambiequal persons do not. Cata- 
tonics, whose test findings place them between these two categories in the 
schemes, show blocking of motor function. 

In the egocentric extratensive type the logical function is generally found 
to be rather weak. We deal in these cases with a condition in which affec- 
tive reactions are lot sufficiently controlled by logical functions. This is the 
case regardless of the reason this condition exists, be it damage of the intro- 



93 

versive faculties as, for Instance, in or the 

ness of the function as In the feebleminded, or as In or 

dementia senilis, or. finally, sort of as is in 

phrenic and querulous schizophrenics. 

7. Experience Type 

This topic has already been covered In the course of the to a 

large extent. A glance at the schemes for classification of the experience 
types shows that those cases with elated mood, utaaies hypomanlcs-, ex- 

cited hebephrenics and catatonlcs, and excited morons imbeciles, all 

found in the group of dilated types. AH depressed subjects are 
the area of the schemes characterized by M's and CTs, that is, with the 
coartated and coartative cases; only In the case of psyehogenic 
are the kinaesthesias maintained. Of this group, some subjects showed dis- 
tinctly eoartative tendencies in spite of having several M responses: it may 
be assumed that if tested at some other time they would have showed more 
M's than when tested while depressed. Subjects with depressions in the course 
of a schizophrenic illness, when tested during, before, or after a catatonic 
episode, are occasionally found to be color types, though they always show 
distinct coartative traits. 

Depressed moods are, therefore, accompanied by a narrowing of the ex- 
perience type; elated moods by a broadening of the type. "Whether these 
changes are the cause or the result of the mood disorder is quite another 
question, probably not subject to solution by the test alone. It is probable 
that the question must be answered in different ways for each different 
mood. 

The coartated group also comprises the affectively dulled and indolent 
cases. Subjects with dilated experience type are never emotionally dull; they 
are always capable of affective reaction. Depressed and simple demented 
subjects, therefore, fall into the same experience type. The difference be- 
tween these reactions lies in the form visualization and in the quality of the 
sequence of responses. In the depressed subject, the conscious thinking be- 
comes sharpened as the experience type becomes coartated, bet this is not 
the case with the simple dementias. The conclusion may be drawn that co- 
artation with retention of the sharpness of disciplined reasoning shows de- 
pression, and that coartation with decrease of disciplined reasoning indicates 
indolence and dulling of the affect. 

Common observation confirms these conclusions. Elated mood increases 
the feeling of capacity for experience. Depressed mood makes it impossible 
to enjoy anything; even the memory of former pleasures is rendered dis- 
agreeable by destructive contemplation as to whether they were really worth- 
while. The joy of pleasurable memories is destroyed by means of this active 



94 

control of associations. The inability to work during depressions is of a 
very particular nature. It Is the opposite of the will to make complicated 
performances, a persistent, insurmountable feeling of insufficiency. His own 
Ideas appear dull and trite to a depressed subject and he feels incapable of 
producing anything creative; he believes himself capable only of imitation 
at best. 

The elated Individual basks in a feeling of certainty as to his capabilities, 
He marvels at Ms own Ideas, not noticing that he Is actually reproducing the 
ideas of others* He dislikes any work which entails copying. 

8. Temporary Variations in the Experience Type. 

The results of the test provide a rather certain judgment about the ex- 
perience type of the subject In question. It would, perhaps, be advisable to 
repeat the test with two parallel series of figures, computing the results 
separately and then averaging them, in order to make the conclusions even 
more certain. Experience has shown, however, that practicable diagnoses are 
possible using only the usual series. 

It has been shown above that the experience type is dependent upon the 
mood. A test made while the subject is elated gives different results from 
those of a test made In a depressed period. For Instance, a subject who, In 
elated mood, has given 6 M's and 3 C's, may produce 2 M's and 1 C when 
depressed. Another, when depressed gave 2 M's and 2 FC (1 C); when elated 
he produced 4 M's and 2 C's. The absolute number of M and C responses 
changes, but the proportion between them changes little or not at all. It is 
not the mixture of Introverslve and extratensive features which changes, but 
the breadth of the experience type. It appears to be a fact that the capacity 
for narrowing and broadening the experience type varies widely among in- 
dividuals. Very marked fluctuations are probably pathological. This material 
all requires further confirmation by a large series of tests. Fatigue tends to 
coartate the experience type markedly. 

The experience type Is, however, not an entirely fixed feature of the per- 
sonality. Under proper conditions, it appears that it can not only be changed 
in breadth, but completely displaced for a short time. The state of being in 
a good humor, for example, results In a normal ambiequal experience 
type, not the ambiequal of the manic, but of the introversive sort. I must 
note, however, that all my subjects in good humor were Intro versives; it 
is possible that this mood in an extratensive subject would result in a manic 
ambiequal kind of reaction. At any rate, good humor causes the experience 
type to be shifted toward the ambiequal type. 

We probably undergo a similar expansion of the experience type when 
we exclaim 'after the performance of an opera, That was an experience ! 
(Erlebnis). A broadening of the experience type in the direction of extra- 



95 

tension we call a pleasure; when In the of 

broadening Is, depending on the degree, creation's or vinspira* 

tion, or even a revelations It Is ex- 

pansions of the experience type are not entirely of the 

experience type, and are engulfed by It a After ex- 

pansion the experience type probably returns to its or 

less rapidly. 

The effect of other factors such as physical 
suggestion, etc,, has not* as yet, been examined. 

9. Changes in Experience Type in the Course of the Life 

The results of the experiment thus far appear to justify 
that the experience type of an individual a certain stability* The occa- 

sional expansions or contractions of it are temporary phenomena, so that the 
experience type returns to its habitual state within a relatively time, 

a few hours, or at most days; only in mood disorders is the more 

lasting. The changes in the experience type due to mental 
consideration also and will be covered in later discussion. 

The development of the experience type and the changes which occur in 
it during the course of the individual's life span present a different problem. 
The experience type of a three year old child is different from that of a 
ten year old, that of an adolescent different from that of & thirty year old 
man, and that of a person of fifty is different from that of the very old. If 
the developmental changes in the experience type of a large number of sub- 
jects could be charted on the experience type schemes, each would show in- 
dividual differences, but there would also very probably be parallel devel- 
opments to be observed. It is, of course, impossible t examine the intra- 
individual development of the experience type; we must be content with 
conclusions drawn from inter-individual studies. For this purpose, we must 
develop a picture of the average changes with age, taking at least 100 obser- 
vations in each group for the purpose. This would be an immense task, the 
more difficult because it would be complicated by questions concerning the 
comparison itself. This problem is taken up in the next section of the study. 

The results now at hand allow us to glimpse only a few short periods of 
the average life span in relation to changes in experience type. We can guess 
at other parts of it, but for the most part, we remain in the dark. 

The experience type appears to be ambiequal in the third to fourth year. 
Ambiequal phases appear to be present also in the period of puberty. After 
puberty the roads appear to separate; from this period on or even earlier 
introversive and extratensive types appear in larger numbers. An introversive 
tendency seems to be general about the thirtieth year. Thereafter, there is 
the greatest variability. It is quite probable that even after the thirtieth there 



critical years which hrln^ with them a general tendency to intro- 
version., as % between the fiftieth fifty-fifth. After forty, per- 
even earlier, introversive features begin to diminish. The individual 
for introversion becomes more coartated with increas- 
ing Many to arrive at the adaptive extratensive type in this 
process. After the sixtieth year, three things may happen. Coartation may 
become more more pronounced until the complete coartation indicated 
by 3H7s C^s is reached (results of very aged normal subjects of 70 to 
8(1 of closely resemble of cases of dementia simplex). Or the 
coartation progresses more rapidly, as in the case of arteriosclerosis. Or the 
continues to in an extratensive direction, reaching the egocentric- 
extratensive type to eventuate in senile dementia. The extent to which ca- 
for introversion is retained in old age probably depends upon the 
degree to which it was present in youth. 

The work of H. Behn-Eschenburg is the first contribution in the syste- 
study of various age groups. He examined 220 school children from 
the of 13 to 15 (see Bibliography). 

10. Comparative Besearches In Experience Type. 

A large amount of experimental material allows comparative studies in 
many directions. It would be ideal, of course, to have these studies based on 
completed life histories, but routine material when in sufficiently large 
amount and when carefully recorded, also can give rise to many new problems 
In this field. 

First, the comparison of the results in male and female subjects. The 
differences are not so large that they demand notice of themselves. The num- 
ber of Ws is somewhat smaller, the number of C's somewhat larger in females 
than in males. There are, however, many exceptions. It is practically impos- 
sible to determine the sex of the subject from the record of the test. Dif- 
ferences become apparent only upon examination of averages of a large 
number of cases. The life curve of a woman doubtlessly runs a different 
course from that of a man, though the differences may not be great. 

Another problem in this field consists in the examination of whole fami- 
lies; perhaps such a study would bring forth striking results. 

It would also be very interesting to examine groups from the different 
trades. Many problems appear here which are not apparent on superficial 
examination. One of these, the question of talent, will be taken up later. 
Another important problem should be investigated, namely, do certain trades 
and occupations speed the increase of stereotypy and cause the more rapid 
loss of the capacity for introversion? 

The experience type should be different in various peoples and races. 
The average experience type of the forty-year-old Englishman is very prob- 



_ 97 

ably quite different from of the German, etc., of the 

This difference should be If the in 

Large series of would provide 

the number of experiments on which be 

based would have to be very large to all 

above. The test itself is technically so simple- it be *n 

interpreter that it may be done with the as as 

with a cultured European. 

1 can supply only one example in connection from the at 

hand. It has to do with the Bernese, especially those from the central 
of the canton, and the Appenzeler, the people coming from the 
central parts f the area especially. The Bernese arc mere introversive In 
type than are the Appenzeller who are more extratensive. Of course, 
are exceptions on both sides; nevertheless, the observations at hand 
that the average life-configuration of the Bernese tends to the introversive, 
while that of the Appenzeller toward the extratensive, side of the schemes. 
(The life-configuration may be considered to be the sketching in of the devel- 
opment of the experience types in the schemes as given above.) Ktnaesthetle 
and original responses are more common among the Bernese. It is, of course, 
no new discovery that the Appenzeller is more adaptable emotionally, a 
more extensive rapport and is physically more active than the reserved, 
stolid, slow Bernese; but it is worth pointing out that the test supports this 
piece of common knowledge. 

Differences are seen in the schizophrenics of the two groups, also. A 
Bernese who becomes schizophrenic is more apt to fall into a profound cata- 
tonic state than is the Appenzeller. The Appenzeller, even though catatonic, 
shows some hebephrenoid traits and does not lose the ability to get into rap- 
port as completely as does the Bernese. This dissimilarity between the 
psychoses of these two groups is apparent to all who have opportunity to 
compare them. The Bernese is more apt to show paranoid features in the 
development of the schizophrenic illness, and tends to construct more florid, 
colorful and myth-like delusional systems than the Appenzeller. In the latter 
group, the delusions are rarely original and they lack the mythical strain 
almost completely. There are other striking differences between the groups 
which will be noted later. 

11. The Affectivity. The Personality 1 . 

We gather together under the term fe Affectivity' the emotions, the af- 
fects, the feelings of pleasure and displeasure. (Bleuler,) 

The test gives orientation as to the affective status of the subject. It 
gives information as to the stability or instability, strength or weakness of 

1 German = Charakter. 
Rorschacla, Pay chodiagno8ti.es* 



_ QQ _ 

" % ""**"~ 7O 

the the intensivity or extenslvlty of the affective reaction, the con- 

trol of of control over the reactions, the suppression or freedom of 

reaction. The specific tone of the affect, whether pleasurable or unpleasant 
be read only incompletely. It is frequently, but not always possible to 
say* In the of the coartated type, whether there Is depression in the pic- 

ture, 0r whether the reaction Is simply on extreme fixation of atten- 

tion* The problem in the dilated type is similar; it is hard to tell at times, 
whether the subject is experiencing pleasurable or unpleasant feelings (anger, 
irritability). 

The absolute number of color responses is a good measure of affective 
lability. When considered in relation to the number of M responses, the num* 
her of C*s indicates the amount of affective lability which the subject actually 
shows, or, in other words, the degree of stabilization of the affectivity. So 
far as experience types are concerned, the C responses represent the extra- 
tensive features of the personality, the ability to get into rapport, the capa- 
city for emotional adaptions, both personal and situational. Avoidance of 
color in the test indicates emotional timidity. This may appear as conscious 
control of emotional reaction where there is preference for the blue of the 
figures, or as neurotic suppression of emotion shown by color shock. 

It has been found empirically that the influence of colors in perceiving 
the figures may be taken to represent the extent of emotional excitability 
and actual excitement; the basis for this deduction is* however, quite insuf- 
ficient to satisfy the demands of scientific logic. There is a definite correla- 
tion between the extent of emotional excitement, the extent of motor activity, 
and the number of responses influenced by color perception. The causes, the 
etlological sources, of this correlation remain to be discovered. 

Why is it that the colors are not included in the perceptions of some cases? 
Is It a matter of diminished sensitivity? This would be to say that depressives 
are all color blind in a particular way. Frequently enough they say that every- 
thing is gray, and this is not only in the metaphorical sense, for they empha- 
size that all colors do not seem to have the same brilliance as before. Manics, 
on the other hand, always stress the brilliance of colors. Yet there must be 
a difference between color-blindness and the tendency to see everything as 
gray or all color-blind people would be emotionally abnormal; while this is 
contrary to ordinary experience, it might be worth while to investigate the 
problem. Or is It that the colors are perceived but are excluded from the 
perception complex? This exclusion may be demonstrated in the neurotic 
subject, and not infrequently in the cultivated individuals who control 
their emotions. Is there some kind of biological, or genetic, or anatomic 
relationship between the substrate on which color perception rests and that 
on which the affect is dependent? Or is the rejection of color simply a 
symptomatic change which Is secondary to real changes in the affective sub- 
strate? The latter is probably the correct surmise since the findings with 



depressives it out in one and the 0! 

Wind persons In another. 

It has long been realized there a very 

between color and affectlvity. The gloomy is to 

looks black, while the cheerful person Is to see 

rose-colored glasses. Black Is the color of mourning: 
other mourning colors probably proves they a 

toward mourning than we do. 

One cannot imagine a gay parly without color, a earaial It 

Is unthinkable. Colors draw people into extratension the affect is 

pletely stabilized as in the case of depressed or phlegmatic persons* 
especially strongly rhythmical tunes which induce rhythmical 
and thus cut off kinaesthetic perceptions, does the thing. A veritable 

mass-action of extratensing factors appears in a parade where there 
colored uniforms, sparkle and glitter of metals, and march music to which 
everyone is in step. Introversive tendencies are highly obstructive ia armies. 
It was not without reason that the army clung to colored uniforms for so 
long a time. Investigation of the effect of field gray uniforms on the mental 
attitudes of soldiers would certainly uncover many interesting facts. General 
Booth's Salvation Army meetings are especially beautiful examples of the 
methods of drawing out extratensive features. Rhythmic, staccato speeches, 
worldly music with powerful rhythms, rhythmic flag-waving, and in the 
center the bright red blouse of the old general. This is certainly no turning 
in upon one's self. Such examples could be multiplied many times. 

The ability to blend colors and form them into a single engram is not a 
simple function but a composite one and it must be acquired. The form en- 
gram is the controlling part of the composite. An absolute memory for 
color is a rare finding; it is well known that few people are able to tell the 
color of the eyes of their nearest relatives. 

It has become apparent in the test that the FC responses, the form-color 
responses, primarily determined by form, secondarily by color, represent af- 
fective adaptability. CF responses represent affectivity which is no longer 
capable of adaptation, though there remains a desire for adaptation. The C 
responses represent impulsiveness: here the desire for adaptability has been 
extinguished. 

The relationships of these three types of color answers with each other 
when considered in relation to the number of M answers, naturally yields a 
much more complete scale of emotional tones than does the scheme of ex- 
perience types with its rough calculation of the color responses. It is im- 
possible to discuss or even describe all these variations systematically; only 
a few special types of general affectivity will be mentioned. 

Empathy. Individuals capable of empathic relationships with others must 
include in their make-up certain introversive and extratensive elements. This 



_ 100 

conclusion may be arrived at by theoretical deduction and is proved empir- 
ically. Genuine empathy presumes thai the two individuals In the empathic 
relationship are of similar type. A subject having the pattern, 3 M's, 2 PC's., 
CF*s and *s, can have only partial empathy in his contacts with a sub- 
ject who lias 10 M responses; the former will he unable 10 follow the emo- 
tional reactions of the latter. A subject giving Id M's will not be able to 
make a Found empathic relationship with one who gives 2 NTs; the former 
will tend to accredit the latter with more introversion and individualism 
than he actually possesses* will idealize him. He who has no color answers 
at all is capable only of << intellectual empathy*; similarly, those subjects show- 
ing neither M nor C responses. As CF and C responses increase, especially 
when they outweigh the PCs in the pattern, a strong desire for empathy may 
be present in the subject, but the non-adaptable emotional components are 
so strong that they outweigh the adaptable, so that the subject, in his desire 
to adapt himself and to attain empathic relationship, actually demands adap- 
tations and understanding from others. He is not capable of empathy, but is 
demanding, selfish, and egocentric. Such are those irritable and sensitive 
persons who frequently are found unable to understand irritability and sensi- 
tivity in others, the enthusiasts who cannot understand why others remain 
cool in the fare of their enthusiasm, people in love who want to see the whole 
Wr!cl happy because they are, the zealots and reformers who consider their 
own ideas of such great worth as to set the world on fire. Naturally the epi- 
leptics, who show, despite their overt friendliness, egocentric attitudes, and 
inanics and senile dements also are of this type. 

The capacity for purely affective empathy is limited in every direction, 
and is possible in spite of these limits only be means of intellectual com- 
ponents which tend to break through the emotional boundaries. The form- 
color responses are the expression of this mixture of components which 
makes possible adaptations on the emotional level. It is probably impossible 
to draw any sharp Sine between ability to get into empathic relation and the 
capacity for adaptation. 

Suggestibility. Affective suggestibility is represented in this test by the 
CF responses; M, FC and C answers may or may not be present; in any case 
there must be a predominance of CF\ either absolutely or relatively. Ego- 
centric extratensive subjects are the most suggestible, and are particularly 
influenced by emotional suggestions. The greater the number of M*s in the 
experience type formula, the less the suggestible is the subject, but if sug- 
gestive influences are at all effective in such individuals they are more lasting. 
A fact already established is reaffirnied in this connection, namely, that the 
greater the capacity for conscious reasoning, the less suggestible is the sub- 
ject, arid conversely, the greater the affective lability, the greater the sug- 
gestibility of the subject. There is one exception to this rule, however, for 
when the lability exceeds a certain point, suggestions have insufficient time 



101 _ 

to became established, and are therefore 

are not very suggestible. Compulsion for eon- 

scions accentuation of disciplined as the 

of their psychic make-up, are very little by suggestion; if 

bility comes Into evidence at all it Is to be la the of tic 

reaction, negative suggestibility, together with and a of 

their own spinelessness. 

Impulsiveness. In the following discussion, are 10 be 

sudden discharges of emotion with 

The two discharges are related, as we have seen earlier, the correla- 

tion established between the affect and xnotility. re- 

present the highest decree of affective lability. The situation in this 
is altered according to the presence or absence of or FCs in the record. 
If there are few M responses with many Cs impulsive are less strik- 

ing, and fit into the general picture of the subject's emotional and motor 
excitement. In this situation emotional discharges (and *abreacli0ns) are 
continuous., the impulsive outbursts appearing as slight exacerbations of the 
usual affective behavior. The introversive impulsive person responds dif- 
ferently. In these individuals the emotions are stabilized, mostly by con- 
scious control. When an impulse Is released in such a person, it explodes 
the confines of his mtroversive stabilization in a manner quite different from 
the response of the extratensive. Amtiequal subjects are practically ail im- 
pulsive; the various types of this group react in this respect in the same way 
they do in regard to other factors discussed previously: maaics react like the 
extratensives do where impulsiveness is concerned; talented subjects, good- 
humored individuals, and catatomes respond like introversives. Compulsion 
neurotics can show either type of impulsive reaction, introversive or entra- 
tensive. 

The capacity for rapport formation, for empathy, for suggestibility, and 
for impulsiveness, all vary according to the experience type of the individual 
and according to the relation in which various types of color answers appear 
in the test. This different shading is seen in all human characteristics. Such 
characterizations as benevolent, tyrannical, moody 7 or Jealous, etc. describe 
very different situations which may have very different origins, according to 
the experience type of the individual. Tyranny in an introversive person is 
very different from tyranny in an extratensive. Examples of such differ- 
ences are seen when. Ludwig II of Bavaria or a personality such as Lenin's 
are compared with Wilhelm II or Louis XIV, 

If all the languages of the world were used, it would still be impossible to 
express all the nuances of personality which are found to have their founda- 
tion in the experience type. The personality of an individual is almost entirely 
determined by his affective make-up, according to Bleuler. It is, therefore- 



obvious that the experience type, especially considered in conjunction 

with the distribution of the three types of color responses, becomes signi- 
ficant in indicating the personality of the subject. 

For the present, there is little more to add to the discussion of the various 
moods and emotional slates. Coartated types are the most attentive. The type 
u invariably coartated in depressive moods; in cheerful states, dilated. There 
is but one emotion whieh can appear in all experience types and that is 
anxiety ! . 

Since the personality of the subject may be determined to a considerable 
extent by the experience type, study of the various characterological pheno- 
mena should result in a list of findings like that obtained from the study of 
the combinations and variations of the experience types. Thus we should find 
changes in the personality in the course of the lifetime, personality differences 
among the various races, etc. 

12, Imagination. 

In the discussion thus far, there has been frequent occasion to speak of 
imagliiative individuals . As it is usually understood, this means persons 
with creative imagination; however, for the present, the question of recept- 
ivity or productivity of imagination is of secondary importance. Many sub- 
jects believe that they have no imagination yet they admit that they enjoy 
the productions of others; these react in the test in such a way as to make it 
difficult to distinguish between them and subjects known to have productive 
imagination. Such subjects' imagination functions only in a receptively crea- 
ting imagination; as has been noted, the types are difficult to separate on the 
basis of the test. The difference lies in the direction of the energy used in 
the process of imagination. In the subjects with productive imagination, this 
energy leads to productivity; in those with receptive imagination this energy 
is dispersed to other, usually extra-personal ends, finding its direction toward 
the extra-tensive side of the experiencing-apparatus. In the productive, this 
energy is directed toward inducing action in that part of the experiencing- 
apparatus which includes the disposition to be imaginative. 

Szymnn Hens* in 1917, published a study called Testing the Imagination 
of School Children, Adults, and Mental Patients by Means of Formless Blots . 
Hens' studies were carried out with blots similar to those used in this study. 
In his summary, he touches upon some of the problems which have arisen in 
this research, tut he could not study them completely because he addressed 
himself to the problem of the content of the interpretations exclusively and 
did not go beyond the concept of imagination, in a case where only percep- 
tion can be considered as basic. His conclusions, therefore, concern the con- 

1 German =* Augst 



teat ratter than the pattern of perceptive has my 

ciple concern. 

Individuals who enjoy losing In the of 

their personalities, more or less actively be 

imaginative. This reaction may be common or for of 

or short duration, may vary in the extent volition it, bat not 

be entirely involuntary, and may be productive or receptive in 

In the test, these subjects are characterized by the of 

tales, mythical pictures, and scenes from novels, so forth, are 

characteristic in regard to the pattern of the factors of the They 

very many M's, usually several, and frequently many color 
there is never a preponderance of color over movement. They 
whole answers, numerous original answers, and the Is low. 

Forms are, in general, clearly visualized, frequently exceptionally so. They 
are patient in the experiment, and surrender entirely to their ideas, 80 
especially in the case of those with productive imaginations, they connect a 
series of ideas to produce combined whole responses, Interpreting entire 
scenes. 

The findings in these subjects indicate that the int rover si ve factors are 
predominant as shown by the II responses, the good original answers and the 
percentage of animal answers. Wealth of associations and energy of asso- 
ciations on a constitutional basis, evidenced by the Ws, are also strongly 
developed in these individuals. Sequence is neglected to the extent of extreme 
freedom or looseness. The affective make-up is extremely labile. 

Co^abttlati^^^iijbjftet^ another type of imaginative persons, react in quite 
a different way. The difference is best illustrated by an example. An 
imaginative woman at times her imagination is productive in type- inter- 
preted Plate VIII as A fairy tale; a treasure in two blue chests is buried 
under a tree stump, and underneath there is a flame; there are two animals 
guarding the treasurer A^rfrfabtii^^ inter- 

pretation: Two bears, ^ndj^^j^^-^m^i^jouj^^ therefore it must be 
the bear pit in BernerrTlie^maginative subject producesTa "complete picture 
from the plate without undue distortion of the individual parts, and, espe- 
cially, takes into consideration the relative positions of the parts. The con- 
fabulating subject takes two parts of the Plate and combines them to the 
extent of contamination in some instances, disregarding the rest of the figure, 
and without regard- to the relative position of tke parts used. Interpretations 
given by imaginative subjects are made up of much more complicated asso- 
ciations than are those of confabulators. 

The content of the first example above ce-ntiB from tne world of fantasy; 
in the second, the content has its source-*m Jre^ajlity. The, first is the response 
of an introversive subject, the second of an extratensive individual. The first 
answer is marked by an emotional tone of "pleasure which is typical of the 



_ 104 

introversive, while the as though It were a triumph, In a 

typical of the extra tensive-egocentric; the perceptive process is, how- 
ever, more complete in the first in the second interpretation. 

The introvcrsive-imaginative subject perceives reality more clearly than 
the confabulating extratensrve. His interpretations are made up of asso- 
ciative characteristic of that which belongs to introversity, and the 
emotional tone is one of pleasure, the interpretations complicated. To him, 
the task is a game. The confabulating subject, on the other hand, does not 
perceive reality clearly. In producing his interpretations he employs the re- 
latively small store of associative material, usually drawn from reality, cha- 
racteristic of the extratensives, and the associative pattern is as simple as 
possible. There is little sense of pleasure in the process of interpreting; there 
is more the sense of triumph because of what he considers to be a brilliant 
performance. Finally, the imaginative subject is more conscious of the fact 
that he is interpreting than the confabulator; the latter frequently does not 
recognize that he is using imagination. 

The differences between imaginative and confabulating subjects are, then, 
generally the same as those between introversive and extratensive ones. In- 
troversive and extratensive features may be mixed together in the same in- 
dividual as we have seen, and imaginative and confabulatory features may 
also occur together as is the case in elation or in pseudologia phantastica. In 
states of poetic inspiration in the ambiequal subject it may happen that the 
features of confabulation become predominant and overcome the conscious- 
ness of the unreality of the product of imagination. This is especially true 
when alcohol, which in itself increases confabulation, influences the picture; 
this may be seen in the works of E. T. A. Hoffman. 

Delusions, whether schizophrenic or of other reaction type, do not allow 
direct comparison with imaginations of the normal person. The schizophrenic 
patient who was originally imaginative will, f course, produce different, 
richer, more colorful delusions than a patient originally unimaginative, just 
as in the test his interpretations are different from those of an originally un- 
imaginative person. The function of imagination probably has little to do 
with the fact that the patient's delusions take on the same value as reality, 
become reality for him. This is dependent upon quite other factors having 
to do with the mechanism of projection. 

13. Experience Type and Type of Imagery* 

Imagery types, as set up by psychologists, are not clearly circumscribed, 
and are by no means well established, a fact that has been stressed by Stern 1 . 
In the earlier work visual, auditory and motor types were differentiated ac- 

1 W. Stem, Differentielle Psychologic. Leipzig, 1911. 



- 105 

cording to tie of one or la the 

determination of the conceptlvc tlo the 

lions of speech, etc. (Stem, p. The that th* pre- 

ferred sensory Influenced activity In all of life 

has proved 10 be (Stern^ p* 194). 

Is the imagery type of ae his a 

subject in the test shows kinaesthetic 

mory, does this mean that this sensory (the the 

life? These questions cannot be answered at 
trol experiments, using the ordinary of to 

It has been shown statistically the perceptive for tlie 

moment, this term as analogous to the imagery type) fit the 

type scheme in a quite definite way. This is in XVL 

Table XVI. Perceptive Type*. 



M C 




1 M C Abstract M 1 C 




x M C M>C xMxC H < M 


xC 


Kinaestlietie Auditory 




Visual 




and those who combine all the imagery types 





Intro versives are predominantly kina esthetic in perceptive type while 
extratensivies are predominantly auditory. Subjects of the visual type are 
found in the central column which is, as may be seen, quite broad and in- 
clusive. In the center of this area are the subjects who are talented in many 
directions; these combine all the various imagery types. Introversive subjects 
may show auditory imagery type, but the extratensives are never strongly 
kinaesthetic in type. Adaptive subjects, especially if there arc coartative 
features, generally fall into the speech-motor type (lingual-motor). Strongly 
coartative individuals can hardly be called anything other than abstract *. 

Exactly what is meant by the motor type remains unclear in psycho- 
logy. From our data, we find that the individual who is strongly influenced 
by kinaesthesias is clumsy in the motor sphere while those who are skillful 
in motor performances produce few kinaesthetic engrams. In the classifica- 
tion above, motor skill is found in the same area as auditory apperceptive 
types. The lingual-motor type represents a speeial case of motor skill. 

I do not deny that these statements stand in need of further research. 
Consideration of the problem of the talents lends support to the idea that 
the perceptive type and probably the imagery type as well are conditioned 

1 German = Begriffliche. 



_ 108 

by the experience type. If the perceptive imagery type is conditioned by 
the experience type, then everything which to the experience type 

must hold for the perceptive imagery types. The perceptive 

type must, therefore, be subject to the same lElraladwidttal Yarialions as is 
the experience type* The perceptive type should, then, show variation with 
fatigue, change in mood, and especially, change in age. Variation according 
to race should also be apparent. 

The loss of capacity for introversion begins in men before the fortieth 
year, and the experience type gradually approaches the extrateesive there- 
after. The perceptive and imagery types should show similar changes. A 
quotation from Stem (p. 373) bears on this point. 

The visual qualities of Schiller's lyrics were compared with the same qualities in 
Goethe's lyrics by Karl and Marie Groos, using Frank's computations OB Goethe% works. 
Certain similarities and differences were found in the comparison of the works of the two 
men. It was found that, in Ms earlier works, Schiller used more than twice as many ex- 
pressions referring to visual qualities (computed as rate in 10,000 words of text) as did 
Goethe. In Goethe's works, the number of allusions to visual qualities increases with the 
age of the writer, while in Schiller the number decreases considerably; this is especially 
apparent in regard to expressions pertaining to brilliance, glare, glitter. Similarities be- 
tween the two authors appear. In both, the ratio between the number of expressions con- 
nected with vivid color and other optical qualities is 1:3, both in the early and the later 
works. As both authors grew older references to red decreased in frequency and expres- 
sions involving green increased; in both blue was poorly represented, and both used yellow 
hardly at all. In both there it an increase of expressions involving lighter shades as age 
increases 1 . 

In another section of his book, Stern quotes the same authors to the 
effect that Schiller was more strongly acoustic (in imagery) than was Goethe 
and was far more so than was Shakespeare. 

The differences between the two authors and the trends shown in their 
use of optical Imagery may be explained by assuming that Goethe's experience 
type was originally far more dilated than was Schiller's, that is, it originally 
spread far more into the introversive sphere than did Schiller's. As both men 
grew older, kinaesthesias decreased with the result that Goethe then fell 
into the area of visual types, while Schiller more nearly approached the 
auditory imagery type. This explains the decrease in expressions of optical 
qualities in Schiller and the increase of them in Goethe. 

The decrease of references to red with increasing age may be considered 
as the expression of increase in emotional control. This finding would cor- 
respond with the results in the test, where emotional control was found to 
increase with age. It is extraordinary that the use of blue does not increase 
in frequency. It may be that a preference for blue is a sign of definite emo- 

1 Literature as in Stern: 1, L. Frank, Statistische Untersnchung iiber die Verwendung 
der Farben in den Dichtungen Goethes. GieBener Diss. 90. 2. Karl and Marie Groos, Die 
akustischen Phanomene in der Lyrik Schillers. Zeitschr, f. Asth, 5, 54570, 1910. 3. Karl 
and Marie Groos, Die optischen Qualitaten in der Lyrik Schillers. Zeitschr. f. Asth. (Des- 
soir) 4, 559 7 L 1909. 



_ 107 

tional timidity. So far as is It be the lest if 

it Is now used clo not to the of 

that edbr. 

14. Experience Type the 

The effectiveness of Imagery type in the of the in 

which an individual will become hallucinated he 

illusions cannot be definitely stated. In the 

probably definitely determines the hallucinated, but in 

tory states, such as delirium tremens for example, is 

The more extratensive schizophrenics almost always in the 

auditory sphere. This group includes the hebephrenoid catatonics, 
paranoid cases f long duration and some hebephrenics. Introvcraivc 
however, very frequently show hallucinations in the of bodily 

tions which often are quite Indistinguishable from If voices 

heard by patients of this type, these voices have kinaesthctic 
arise within the patient's own body rather than from outside. All the 
are hallucinated in the ambiequal patients, the catatonics the catatonoid 

paranoics. Patients with simple dementia do not hallucinate at all. 

The correlation between experience type and the sense 

carry through in all the other relationships of the experience as de- 

scribed above. This problem must be left for later studies. Two observations 
will, however, serve as examples in this connection. It may be observed fre- 
quently that the sense hallucinated changes with increasing age in schizo- 
phrenics. Visual hallucinations may disappear with age, but voices remain. 
The opposite trend is observed extremely rarely except in cases stowing ex- 
acerbations tending toward introversion. 

Another example is afforded in the Bernese and the Appenz*ller. The 
Appenzeller are extratensive even when schizophrenic and show auditory 
hallucinations practically exclusively. Visual hallucinations are rare in them, 
and kinaesthetic illusions occur infrequently. In the Bernese, however, kin- 
aesthetic hallucinations and hallucinations of bodily sensations are among 
the most common symptoms. Visual hallucinations are also more frequent in 
this group than in the other, and auditory hallucinations are, of coarse, rela- 
tively frequent also. 

15. Experience Type and Talent. 

The first thing which drew attention to the relation between experience 
type and talent was the observation that all painters gave relatively many 
M responses and that particularly talented subjects, talented in several fields, 
always fell in the area of the experience type scheme with the ambiequal 



108 



showing little or no coartalive trend. Different sorts of studies including ex- 
periments artists as study of spontaneous directed pro- 
of all subjects have lead to certain conclusions. These require fur- 
ther study differentiation, however. 

A dilated experience type is fundamental for most talents. The influence 
of coartation on talent' what can occur in coartalecl subjects remains 

a question to be examined. Other problems include the changes in talents, and 
the question of whether some talents may be made more effective by coarta- 
tion. The which have been studied to some degree at least, fit into 

the experience type scheme as shown in Table XVII. 






talents. 





M C 




1 M C 


Cotrlated Types 


M 1 C 


i 
t 


i 


1 


x M C M > C 


x M x C 


M < C M x C 




Ambiequal Types 


Adaptative Egocentric 


IntroYersive 




ExlratensiYC 


Philosopher/I 






Designers 






Theorists 


Painters 


Musicians 






Linguists 






Practical Individuals 




Capacity for 


Technicians 




SYNTHESIS 


Speakers 


Language sense 




Dancers (with primitive 


Rhythmic sense 




desire to dance) 



This rather rough summary is to be interpreted as indicating that only 
a person of the ambiequal type is capable of including all the talents in a single 
individual. In ambiequals the introversive talents are likely to be more effec- 
tive, however. Introversives may have talents more characteristic of extra- 
tensives to some extent, probably to the extent indicated by the relation be- 
tween M and C in the test. This mixture of introversive and extratensive ta- 
lents becomes more common the nearer the M-C relationship approaches the 
ambiequal type, and it becomes less apparent the further from the ambiequal 
the case lies. Extratensives may have introversive talents if they approach 
the ambiequal in experience type, but apparently art becomes skill as one 
passes the middle of the chart. Music, language and technical skill are, ap- 
parently, the only talents which appear in highly developed state in the 
extratensives. 

All this material is in a crude and undifferentiated state and does not 
allow complete understanding. There are, for instance, painters who fall into 



109 



the extratensive typo. But h a the 

give painter and the pxtratensiv* one. The i* 

live in his work, while the intro*ersive is In Ms. 

probably for all the different Is, the Is 

the extratensive is primarily reproductive. 1 not in 

respect, hot it is certainly In the of and in 

technical skill represents reproductive The* of 

talents according to their introvenive and extratemtve is, in 

a large task. The following Table (XVIII) to a 

differentiation, using painters as the example ! 



Table XVHI. 



M C 

I >I C SchtmatifttB DM 1C 

5 Empty forouiiiU, 

1 resulting In logical < color sequences 



| CoHiracrcia! Artists, Decoration ' 

f t 

x M C M > C x M x C M < C M x C 

Abstract Naive 

Futurists Symbolist Enjoying Color 

Expressionist Impressionists 

(intra personal motives) " (cxtrapersonal motives) 

Black and White Colon 

Synthesis of 

Motion, Form, Color 

Intra- and extra-personal motives 

The timeless classic art. 



Obviously, such a differentiation could be extended to show much more 
delicate nuances. In actuality, each artist represents an individuality of his 
own. 

Turning to other talents, the extraverts may have extraordinary ability 
to handle language and ability in repartee though there is little sense or 
feelingp> for language. In the introversive, however, poor ability to speak 
may be combined with a deep sense for language. Those who actually con- 
tribute to languages, and the really great speakers must comprise both 
faculties. An example of such is found in Luther. According to the theory 
outlined, such persons must fall in the ambiequal type, 

Extratensives are agile, elegant dancers; it is, however, the introversives 
who really enjoy rhythmic dancing. In handwriting we find another specific 

1 I am greatly obliged to the artist, E. Liithi, of Basle, for many mggestions in this field. 



_ no 

problem. Introversive people have more Individualistic scripts, while extra- 
write with greater in the traditional patterns. In the field of 

gesture, the introversivcs individually specific gestures, while extra- 

tensives more traditional movements for expression, 

The contrast may be expressed in still another way, namely, that intro- 
versives are cultured, extratensives are civilized. 

Coartativity is necessary if there is to be talent in the field of systematic 

scientific endeavor* Introversive dogmatism or more extratensive reproductive 

labor follows npon minimal degrees of coartation; poly pragmatism may also 

appear on the part of the minimally coartated individual. Maximum coartalion 

to empty formalism and schenaatisalion* 

Talent in organizing demands a mixture of introversive and extratensive 
features, and there must be a capacity for coartation as well. The extraten- 
sive features are the more important. In contrast, in the ability to make ob- 
servations 0ne finds the introversive features to be more important though 
there must be some features of extratension. Observers in whom the intro- 
versive features are too marked are biased in one direction and are dogmatic. 

Knowing the experience type of an educated subject, it is a simple matter 
to guess his favorite philosopher. Introversive individuals swear by Schopen- 
hauer, dilated ambiequals by Nietzsche, coartated individuals by Kant, and the 
extratensive group by some evanescent authority, Christian Science or some- 
thing of that sort. 

While these observations are quite superficial, nevertheless it is certainly 
true that talent and experience types are inseparably related. There are pro- 
bably no unit talents, but rather experience types which present optimal 
situations for the development of potentialities aroused by some actuating 
stimulus. Unit or single talents are observed simply because others have not 
been developed. The fact that only one has been developed results from lack 
of stimulus, not from any constitutional incapacity. In no case does a talent 
represent a single possibility of development. It is, rather, the result of two 
factors, first, a constitutional capacity dependent on the experience type, 
and, second, a stimulus which activates the person so that the constitutional 
capacity is transformed into talent. It should be pointed out that there are 
many different capacities possible within the same experience type. 

16. Variations and Comparison of Talents. 

The fate of talents is dependent upon the variations of the experience 
type. This is the case because, as was pointed out in the last section, talents 
exist as potentialities of certain experience types which are optimal for them. 
Therefore, comparison of experience types and comparison of talents cannot 
be undertaken separately. 



_ 111 

In general, variations in are the as In 

type. Like the experience type, are 

etc-, there Is a to which a be 

called habitnal. Creative mood* with 

Inspiration^ is a of forceful of the 

type. Depression prevents Inspiration It the 

The fluctuations of experience in the of a 

to the fluctuations of the talents. It will be to a 

statement about this problem only of ex- 

perience type, changes of varying degree, which in every are 

fully understood. Exhaustion and ^dissipations of the 

an artist begins, in Ms later years, to imitate his own works, the 

experience type has been deflected from the optimum for the 
talent in question. The experience type become more extratcnsive, 
is less capacity for introversion, so that the talent the prodoc* 

live but more technical sort. When a talent shows marked development 
is an indication that the introversive features have become stronger as de- 
terminants. As a role, there is an increase in capacity for introversion 
the thirtieth year, though this may not hold for all races. The Iale mfttnra- 
tion of many Swiss artists has its foundation in a late shift in the experience 
tjpe. 

The development of Ferdinand Hodler is of great interest in this respect. 
He showed tremendous expansions of the experience type in both the intro 
and extra directions in his career. At first he reveled in color, portrayed 
joyful folk-scenes full of action. Eventually he used almost no color in his 
paintings, but depicted powerful movements, impressive in the control they 
indicate. In him there was a gradual growth of kinaesthetic features, and a 
shutting out of color. Finally, he employs the color blue almost exclusively; 
blue is the favorite color of all who control their passions. The predominance 
of introversive factors is unmistakable in the larger paintings. The content 
of the latter also show the trend toward introversion which culminates in the 
picture A Glance into Eternity . It is remarkable that he could produce the 
portrait of General Wille in the same period. The contrast between these two 
pictures reveal a tremendous control over introversive and extratensive tend- 
encies in his constitution as well as over his techniques of expression. 

Alfred Kubin furnishes another example. One can follow the relationship 
between the variations in his experience type and the changes in Ms artistic 
activities in his autobiography 1 . When he was most profoundly introverted 
he could neither paint nor draw, but he was able to construct a philosophical 
system and to write his novel, The Other Side, telling of a joumey into 
the unconscious . When extratensive factors increase, he goes back to draw- 

1 In Alfred Kubin, Die andere Seite. Verlag St. Muller, Munich ancl Berlin. 



112 

ing, starting with white, turning, as factors become more 

effective, to color eventually. other such as this could be 

given. 

Comparative of experience include comparison of 

talents. Differences in experience type in and women should indicate 

differences in talents the two sexes show. (The determining influence of 
instinct, discussed in the following section, not be neglected in this 

connection*) Comparative studies of the experience types of different ethnic 

must include comparison of their talents. 

Here, too, are available. The only one to which the test 

been applied is that furnished by the Bernese the Appenzeller. Since 

introverslve features are more apparent in the Bernese, talent In drawing, as 

an example* should be more common in them. This is found to be the case. 

The Bernese do show far more talent in drawing than do the Appenzeller. 

patients* in institutions draw spontaneously far more frequently and 

their creations are often quite original in conception; when the Appenzeller 

draw his work is likely to be a Cdpy of something such as an embroidery 

design. On the other hand, the Appenzeller has a great deal of talent for 

eloquence and wit, something which certainly cannot be said of the Bernese. 

I d0 not know whether talent in music is more common among them than 

among the Bernese. s 

The reactions of various groups to color is noteworthy. Those who inhibit 
and suppress their emotions* especially coartated types, tend to avoid color, 
to be shy of it. This is probably most apparent in English art. Markedly intro- 
verted people prefer art in black and white. "With increase in extratensive 
features in the experience type there is an increase in the enjoyment of co- 
lor; an example is found in the Southern Europeans. Ambiequal types of all 
peoples are the synthesists. 

"With appropriate means of analysis, these comparative studies may even 
include various cultural epochs. Quoting from Stern, page 374: Baerwald 
has tried to illustrate the difference between two cultural epochs by using 
psychological categories, contrasting Goethe's period with our own times. 
Goethe's period may be expressed as one of drawing and rhythm, that is, for- 
mal in its imagery type, abstract in thinking, in affective responses controlled 
by a rather calm mixture of emotions. The present times are, in contrast, 
characterized by a colorful-melodic or material sort of imagination, con- 
crete reasoning, and disquieting mixtures of emotions 1 . In terms of this ex- 
periment, these results may be expressed as follows: Goethe's times were pre- 
dominantly introversive, that is, rhythmic and formal (using formal in this 
special sense), abstract and emotionally stabilized, while the present period 

3 Baerwald, Psych. Faktoren des modemen Zehgeistes. Schr. d, Ges. f. psych. For- 
scliimg, 15, p. 1 85, 1905. Annotation after Stern, Differentielle Psychologic, Leipzig, 1911. 



_ 113 _ 

Is extratenslve, is, 

emotionally. 

There Is at an 

gnostic of introversion are and are so of 

extra tension that systems are In 

deraic circles. As is always the in a the is 

many will not only reject cxtratcesion 
terialism thus becomes mysticism cultism. The 

considered pathological for so is the of the 

sive epoch which is now drawing to a close. The of tic 

period brought forth some dubious ideas, 

lost to such an extent that culture and civilization were confused* Culture 
always grows out f introversion; civilization is an extra tensive 
and usage, but is not, in itself, culture. To only iatroversive 

in the experience type is to be completely introverted is not culture 

either, but represents, at best, a sort of private cultism. 

17. Experience Type, Talent, and Instinct. 

The experience type includes eo ipso certain constitutional possibilities 
for development of talents. There is an apparatus for talent development in 
the experience type, just as we have seen that the experience type represents 
a receptive apparatus generally. It is probably rare even in the most talented 
ambiequal types that any considerable portion of the possibilities contained 
in this apparatus is activated for productive, creative work. 

This disposition for the formation of talents is not, then, talent itself; 
something more is required. What is necessary is a powerful emotional set 
which aspires to a goal and at the same time produces goal-images for itself. 
This we call instinct, or will, or libido; this transforms the dispositions into 
talent. The instincts change the Anlage of the experience type into manifest 
talents and productive tendencies. 

The activation of potential talent is a common phenomenon, so common 
that it is possible to determine the approximate optimal experience type for 
the various talents though the number of experiments is relatively small 
(about 150 talented individuals have been studied). The frequency of the 
activation of talents indicates that the will is not quite free in the choice 
of talents, but that the disposition plays a somewhat determining part as 
well. The disposition paves the way for the instinct and it has, thus, eo ipso, 
the tendency to become a talent. 

Many talents remain undeveloped. Frequently the test indicates that a 
subject has a talent for drawing. On questioning, it is found that the subject 
was able to draw quite well while at school but that afterward he just never 

Rorschach. Psychodiagnostics. 8 



_ 1 14 

""-~ j ITF 

got around to doing It; Ms father and brother were good at drawing, however. 
An individual who Is recruited early Into an extratensive profession never 
has opportunity to attach emotional drive to his talents because of situa- 
tional circumstances, though he may have the An!age of introversive appa- 
ratus which might lead to the development of talents. He may realize now 
and again that he Ms proper profession. The neglected talent does 

not always call attention to itself in this way, however; the constant stimula- 
tion of extratensive factors can cover up all such warnings. A person may 
retain a definitely introversive experience type despite the fact that he lives 
very extratensively or he may stress the extratensive features while at work 
and the introversive features during vacations. Such an individual who has 
become the victim of exclusive one-sidedness will, some day, break down be- 
cause of the discrepancy between the experience type and the necessities f 
life. There is a great deal f truth behind the suggestion that such a man has 
over-worked. He has actually over-worked one part of the apparatus with 
which he approaches living, neglecting other parts. It is relatively certain 
that a marked gap between the possibilities of development indicated by the 
experience type and the demands of external circumstances leads to neurosis. 

As has been indicated already, it is possible to determine the presence or 
absence of imagination in an individual from the results of the test; it is, 
however, impossible to state whether this imagination is creative or receptive. 
For receptive imagination there is required only the fundamental apparatus 
plus occasional impulses of activating energy for stimulation. Productive 
imagination requires very different, more intensive and libidinous emotional 
currents. A novelist who writes his first two books on the basis of poetic 
introversion and then builds a house with the money received from royalties, 
employing his creative powers in its construction and wasting emotion still 
more on critics, may so impoverish his imaginative apparatus that he can 
afterward write only literature for the drawing-room. He produces stories 
which are extratensive, adaptable to everyone. Thenceforth, he confabulates 
rather than imagines. 

Another example based on observations made with the test concerns a 
young man who chose painting as a profession because his father was an 
artist; he wished to be in the same profession because of admiration of his 
father. Both the father and the son love the profession passionately ; it is 
libidinized in them. The father, having a strongly introversive experience 
type, is original and creative. The son, however, is predominantly extraten- 
sive and could develop a good technique in his art, but he lacks originality 
entirely. He is, primarily, a good copyist. His experience type does not extend 
far enough into the introversive sphere to produce that constellation of fea- 
tures which is necessary for creative work. No matter how much libido he 
devotes to his profession it cannot be sufficient. 



- 115 - 

Obviously, correlation between and be 

in of tiie the* of 

by of pathogenic In 

called Intro version (see p. 811. 

18. Type % ! and 

la the discussion above It has been anil 

perceptive and, probably, Imagery type* and of 

and Intelligence, are all direct outgrowths of the of an in- 

dividual. These vast functional action are 

and for this reason each must, to a or be to 

the same changes as the others. Changes in functional only 

be conditioned by intra-individiial changes in experience type. The 
can be corrected and restrained somewhat by other as the 

instincts on the one hand aad disciplined reasoning on the otter, but not 
controlled. To say this in other words, changes in the functional may 

be restrained to some degree by means of voluntary direction of that part of 
the ever-changing experience apparatus which has been selected for 
as a goal idea. <s Principles are actually Instinctively fixed ideas which 

serve as protections against upheavals in the experience type, which keep 
these upheavals from spreading over the entire psychic life. Furthermore, 
disciplined reasoning itself is not completely free but is dependent on the 
experience type to a large degree. If disciplined thinking is to be liberated 
from changes in the experience type completely, it can only be done by the 
individual concerned sacrificing the ability to experience at all* 

19. Experience Type and (Mental) Illness* 

The relationship between experience type and the mental illnesses hag been 
touched upon already; only a few remarks will be added here. The subject 
is so vast, and problems so numerous that our material is too small to settle 
the issues and many more experiments will be necessary to come to any 
definite conclusions. 

Two possibilities must be considered: the presence of disease may cause 
a shift or change in the experience type, or the form of the illness may be 
determined by the experience type. As was the case before, we deal here not 
with the content of the thinking, but only with the manner of action of the 
psychic processes. These possibilities might'botfa be combined; this is probably 
very frequently the case. 

In the schemes presented ok page 74 manic-depressive insanity presents 
a striking picture, being found in the middle column only. Depression falls 

1 German = Cfaarakter. 



- 116 .. 

with the coartatecl types, elation with the dilated. It u conceivable that the 
disease has the experience type toward the middle of the scheme: 

the other possibility Is that the ainhiequal type i* prc-existant and that there 
is in it the predisposition for Illnesses of the nature of elation and depres- 
sion. Factual grounds for either possibility may be advanced. On the whole. 
however, the ainhiequal type Is quite rare, whereas elation and particularly 
depression are quite common. This supports the \ic\* that the disease drives 
the type toward the midline of the schemes, toward the ambiequal type. 

On the other band, 1 1 has long been recognized that there is a clinical 
relationship between manic-depressive insanity anil compulsion neurosis which 
also fails in the midiine of the scheme, Talented persons very frequently 
show a tendency toward elated or depressed moods for varying periods of 
time and lo various degrees. (According: to Moebius, Goethe showed this.) 
Definite relationship exists between genius and compulsion neurosis. (Seen 
in Napoleon I according to Do&tojewski.) It seems likely that both of the 
possibilities listed above operate in manic-depressive insanity. 

In schizophrenia., the results may be summarized as follows: dementia 
simplex belongs to the coartated tjpe* catatonia to the ambiequal dilated type, 
paranoia to the introversive. and hehephrenia to the extratei*sive type. The 
various forms of the disease frequently overlap clinically, and they overlap 
here, too, depending upon the mixture of features in the experience type. On 
the whole, schizophrenics follow the pattern of experience types shown by 
normal subjects. More introversive races produce more typical catatonics and 
productive paranoid cases whose hallucinations are more kinaesthetic in type. 
The extratensive races produce more hebephrenoid catatonics and the para- 
noid cases which occur are less productive. These cases have, for the most 
part, auditory hallucinations. 

Nothing definite can be said as yet concerning the possible influence of 
disease on experience type ami vice versa so far as schizophrenia is con- 
cerned. It is probable that schizophrenic catastrophies, especially sudden 
catatonic attacks, cause sudden shifts in the experience type. Such shifts do 
not, however, change the experience type from its habitual composition 
sufficiently to make this change the essential determiner of the form of the 
psychosis. Individuals who were originally introversive become paranoid when 
the schizophrenic f actor", that unknown something which causes schizo- 
phrenia, gets into their psyche. Those originally extratensive become hebe* 
phrenic, and those originally near the middle of the experience type scheme 
or definitely ambiequal become catatonics when they become schizophrenic. 

Probably an acute exacerbation (in catatonia) is accompanied not only 
by a shift, but by a sudden dilatation of the experience type. During con- 
valescence from an acute catatonic attack there is frequently marked coarta- 
tioM evidenced, often giving the impression of defect. The symptoms oh- 
^erNod are mild depression, lack of interest, resignation and automatic and 



Ill 

mode of work. Sometimes is a of the 

with the of time, In other may he no 

There could lie greater certainty in the of if the 

changes In experience type In the of ll>% were 

Perhaps with knowledge the of the ajse of onet of the 

types of schizophrenic might be clarified. Why is It 

occurs In puberty, Catalonia the of 18 and 30, 

between 30 ami 40, and paranoia querulous later? 

The determination of the type of neurosis in an 

be similar to what has for of the 

of schizophrenic Illnesses. On the the will the 

experience type, and on the other, the experience *i!l b# in 

determining the form of the neurosis. All individuals, whether introversive or 
extrateitsive, may develop anxiety neuroses, but nevertheless, th^re arc dif- 
ferences between the conditions and these differences on the pre- 
existing experience type. The nearer the type approaches the the 
more certain It is that what has been simply fear will become 
anxiety. Individuals of ambiequal type hac compulsion they 
become neurotic at all. The following conclusions cam lie drawn on the 
of the study of some cases: ambiequal Individuals with more introversive 
features suffer compulsive phantasies; those with more extratensive features 
show compulsive movements; those who would fall exactly in the middle 
column of the scheme are neurotic sceptics and pedants. 

The findings in epileptic cases are of great interest. There may be some 
introversive features but extratensive tendencies are always more numerous 
in these cases. There is an increase in the absolute number of movement and 
of color responses and the rate of increase becomes more rapid the faster 
the patient deteriorates toward epileptic dementia. Color responses seem 
almost to constitute a measure of dementia. In epilepsy there is a constant 
widening of the experience type in both directions as the dementia progresses 
but the spread is always more to the extratensive side; this phenomenon still 
escapes efforts to understand it. 

The organic psychoses, paresis and senile dementia* do certainly change 
the experience type. Introversive features decrease, extratensive features 
increase so that in a relatively short time the experience type arrives at ego- 
centric extratensivity. This is not only because the patients are in the older 
age groups where there is a tendency toward a shift in the extratensive 
direction in any case; I have two tabo-paretics between 25 and 30 who gave 
exactly the same results as did the older parties. 

The organic psychoses, therefore, definitely change the experience type. 
In all the other instances mentioned above the experience type exerts a 
determining influence on the form of the psychosis or neurosis. Only the 
form of the neurosis or psychosis is subject to this influence, not the kind 



__ 1 1P _ 

*""'" Ji JLV *"~ 

of Illness that will appear. The noxious etiological has, in Itself, nothing 

whatever to do with the experience type. 

20. The Development of the Experience-Type* 

Kinaesthesias color influences in perceiving have proved to be the 

representatives of essential psychic functional patterns. They are not to be 
considered as anything but representatives of those functions. Any other 
designation for them would allow too many unfounded implications. Little 
Is known of the deeper relationships of these factors to the patterns they 
represent, and we are not able to say which is primary and which secondary. 
If the origin or genesis of the experience type were known, It might be pos- 
sible to give a more complete discussion of this topic, but as yet only a few 
connections in the extensive network of relationships have been recognized. 

According to our findings, the optimal goal of development of the ex- 
perience type would include: 

L Highest possible development of disciplined thinking or logical func- 
tion short of coartation of introvershe or extratensive features and sacrifice 
of the ability to experience. (Development of these functions beyond the 
optimal is seen in pedants and purely intellectual^ individuals.) 

2. Highest possible development of capacity for introversion short of com- 
plete arrest of disciplined thinking (as seen in dreamers) and short of the 
destruction of the capacity for emotional adaptation (this extreme seen in 
abstract individuals who are in the world but not of il). 

3* Highest possible development of capacity for extratension short of ex- 
clusion of disciplined thinking (as seen in careless, lighthearted persons) and 
short of suppression of the capacity for introversion (this last extreme is seen. 
in men whose only interest is business). 

In other words, the optimal goal of development is the harmonious re- 
lationship of three principles, rationality, capacity for inner life and emo- 
tional willingness to adapt. Various relationships are possible which, though 
different, may be called harmonious. 

It is fairly certain that the experience type of a small child of between 
two and a half to three years though the limits of the period are not 
known is ambiequal and dilated. The child is markedly kinaesthetic and at 
the same time markedly egocentric-extratensive in experience type. Education 
and development of disciplined thinking coartate the type. Learning to read 
plays an important role in this coartation due to the fact that it teaches clear 
form perception. 

The functioning of the three principles, disciplined thinking, introversion 
and extratension, already shows wide individual variations long before school 
age. With more or less success, disciplined thinking combats introversive day 
dreaming and extratensive flightiness. The more marked the introversive and 



119 

exlratenslve features In the arc, the thii 

Ing force; the less effective are the It i* for 

to take place. There Is a concentration of the on 

which, when developed to the In the > 

sonality. 

The easier it Is for the to the 

ter memory he has, the more energy tic left for 

extratensive features. (Memory is a no 

on the test results.) The extreme of be la the for 

whom learning Is too easy, so easy he the 

necessary or at least socially necessary -degree of In a 

case the child will not get the necessary practice in 
he is older or, perhaps, not at all. 

The development of the experience type Is, then, a of 

conditioned by the growth of disciplined thinkinj 

certain optimal limits. The coartative and coartated are a of 

hyper-effectiveness of this process. The normal type 

the ideal result of the development of the experience type. 

The problem can be restated as follows: What physiological 

process of coartation to vary so widely among individuals? It be 

to answer this problem, if instead of the development of the experience type, 
one of the correlated patterns of function was studied. Suppose we the 

imagery type. As has been pointed out earlier, the ambiequal dilated ex- 
perience type as seen in the small child should be accompanied by a mixed 
imagery type. There should be no significant predominance of the kinaei- 
thetic, or visual, or auditory spheres. In a two and a half year old child, one 
actually is quite unable to note predominance of any one sphere of imagery. 
"Why does one child develop a visual type and another an auditory? It is 
possible that the determining factor is a sort of functional preparedness f 
certain pathways of the central nervous system. If this were found to be the 
case, there would remain the problem of the relationships of all the other 
characteristics as, for instance, in subjects who belong to the same experience 
type as do individuals with auditory imagery type. 



V. THE USE OF THE FORM INTERPRETATION TEST 

IN DIAGNOSIS. 

1. Practicability. 

Originally this method was used exclusively as an approach to theoretical 
problems. The discovery that the results could be used in making diagnoses 
^as an empirical finding which had not been looked for. The experiment 
became an examining test secondarily. In the first instance the diagnosis 
served as a control for the findings in the test. Following this, the attempt 
was made to make diagnosis from records obtained by colleagues from sub- 
jects quite unknown to me. I am especially indebted to Dr. E, Oberholzer for 
his cooperation in this work. 

It was conceived that this constituted a test of the method, that is, the 
more correct the diagnoses, the better the method proved itself to be, even 
though no indication of age, sex, state of health, presence of neurosis or 
psychosis accompanied the protocol. Incorrect diagnoses were and still are 
made. This is due to the fact that clinical symptoms of primary importance 
may appear unimportant in the test results, and that the test indicates secon- 
dary clinical symptoms as of great importance, so that, while the individual 
symptoms may be correctly described, the putting together of these to form 
a diagnosis may be at fault. 

The test is primarily a qualitative examination. The quality of symptoms 
can he determined from it, but the quantitative degree in which these appear 
remains uncertain, as does, therefore, also the relative importance of symp- 
toms in a mixture of them. Experience and practice with the test play a 
great role in the evaluation of quantitative importance of symptoms, but it 
should be possible to increase the conclusiveness of the computations in the 
trst by means of control experiments taking up each symptom individually. 
Other psychological methods might also be used in control research. 

After a further period of development it should be possible in almost 
e\ery case to come to a definite conclusion as to whether the subject is nor- 
mal, neurotic, schizophrenic or has organic brain disease. Even now it is 
possible to arrive at a clearly differentiated diagnosis in most patients, and 
at a specific personality diagnosis in neurotics and normals. 

It is important to note that the test often indicates the presence of latent 
schizophrenia, neuroses which are barely perceptible clinically, and constitu- 



mood trends. The of the test In the 

Importance of can be so It be a 

symptom is manifest or latent. Il is to the 

of the test, in whether a Is 

or dormant for the re- 

covered appear more obviously ill In records are 

clinically obviously still quite active. the test 

as schizophrenic never the 0! the 

disease bet who had schizophrenic or la to 

cases, there were those in whom the of the lest or, 

more frequently, neurotic condition to the lie 

ment of psychosis because psychosis in the 

matters will be reported in later publications. 

2. 10 the Test. 

The use of the test for diagnostic purposes arouse 

tions. It might be said that the test would reduce the art of 

to a mechanical technic and that, eventually, every laboratory 
produce psychograms by following certain instructions just as he tu- 

bercle bacilli. Such an objection would be untenable. To be able to draw 
conclusions from the scoring of so large a number of factors requires a 
deal of practice in psychological reasoning and a great deal of experience 
with the test. To acquire this experience demands a great deal of clinical 
material for comparative study, and every person wishing to use the test lias 
to get the experience for himself. Only studies on varied types of individuals 
can furnish the basis for the acquisition of experience. The test lends itself 
to psychiatric diagnosis only in the hands of workers capable of collecting 
psychologically comparable material. By collecting data from children of 
various ages, a teacher could make useful diagnoses concerning personality, 
talents and idiosyncrasies of his pupils, but would not dare to make psych- 
iatric diagnoses on the basis of his experience. 

It is to be understood that the test is primarily an aid to clinical diagnosis. 
The diagnosis of patients unknown to the person scoring the protocol is use- 
ful as a control as a matter of practice for the experimenter. 

* The fact that the subject is taken unaware in the experiment is the basis 
for serious objection. He settles himself for a harmless test of the imagination 
and what he is subjected to is far more than that. It would require a long 
discourse to explain the real nature of the test, and besides, such a procedure 
would completely disturb the habitual attitude and spoil the result. The 
management of this difficulty has to be accomplished in different ways by 
the individual examiner. I hope that the test mil be able to discover more 
latent talents than poor vocational adjustments and frustrated illusions; that 



-_ 122 

it will free more of the fear of it will load with such 

fears; that it will afford more relief than aggravation. 

3. Computations for the Purpose of 

It is impossible to furnish ins true lions on how to reach a diagnosis from 
the protocol, nor is it possible to furnish any simple table for this purpose, 
factors have to be considered, such as the experience type, the 
evidences indicating the mood, the components of intelligence, the number 
of responses, the extent of the patient's cooperation, approximate reaction 
time, etc. In reaching a diagnosis one or the other of these factors will re- 
quire more thorough study as the work goes on, until a complete diagnostic 
picture is developed. 

There are many individual ways of going at the test which could not all 
be mentioned heretofore. Some of these will appear in the examples, others 
may be deduced from these fairly easily. 

4. The Content of the Interpretations. 

The content f the inierpretations offers little indication as to the content 
of the psyche until it is considered in relation to the psychogram granting 
that the results of this test for the discovery of patterns of thinking can be 
called psychograms. Occasionally, the content of the responses gives some 
information about the degree of energy the subject applies to his work and 
the amount of pleasure he gets from it, and indicates how adaptable he is 
under his working conditions. This is the case when an engineer repeatedly 
uses parts of machines in his responses, and when a housewife frequently 
mentions dress patterns. In drawing conclusions from such answers, however, 
one must consider all the interpretations in the protocol, and the behavior 
of the subject while interpreting. 

Of greater importance than the above are the ^complex responses. These 
correspond to the ^complex (determined) associations)) of the Jung-Riklin 
association experiments. Such interpretations, that is, responses which bring 
to light the content of the subconscious, suppressed or emotionally charged 
material, are extraordinarily rare. They occur most frequently in the neuro- 
tic subjects, even in them they appear frequently only when the subconscious 
is already in a state of upheaval, as when the subject is undergoing psycho- 
analysis. Schizophrenics occasionally give answers which may be considered 
as falling within this group, but they are rare, even more rare than in the 
neurotic subjects. If one is aware of the complexes of the schizophrenic sub- 
ject, it is more often possible tc detect such answers in their protocols. Pro- 
foundly catatonic patients, if they submit to the test at all, give more 
numerous complex determined responses. 



123 

The be a* a of the 

scions. At best, It is far to the 

methods such as and it 

not difficult to The test not a th- 

subconscious^ but requires to of the 

fonetlon du reel v . 

Certain tendencies in the are by 

parison of the content of the the rest of the 

Suppose we have two of 

with many answers movement In (sec p. 29). 

responds with movements of flexion. This Is 

to indicate that the first subject actively his 

tendencies in his responses, while the to his 

imagination. If, furthermore, the first 

the second Christ-like figures, halog, and in the and if 

subjects show color shock, there is justification for the the 

first subject suffers from neurotic inhibitions of 

against which he revolts, while the subject 

holy and neglects his relations with the outside world* Frequently de- 

ductions in various directions are possible, the subject 

many responses, particularly many original answers. With the exception of 
hysterical subjects, extratensives attack the task in a practical way, 
rarely find in the plates the figures seen in dreams. The psychic sphere from 
which the interpretations come is far removed from the sphere of their 
dreams. 

5. The Test and Psychoanalysis, 

The test cannot be used to probe into the content of the subconscious, as 
has been noted above. Nevertheless, it can be of some service to the psycho- 
analyst. In the first place, it often, and eventually will perhaps always, make 
possible a differential diagnosis between neurosis and latent or manifest 
schizophrenia. The test can clear up those unpleasant situations arising when 
one has an analytic patient in whom there is a suspicion of schizophrenia 
which cannot be dispelled. It is, furthermore, possible to relieve the minds 
of people plagued by a fear of insanity, and, if latent schizophrenia must be 
diagnosed, the analytical therapy can be modified accordingly. 

Findings in the test such as detailed in the previous chapter occasionally 
make possible the prognosis of an analysis. The prognosis is probably more 
favorable in cases where kinaesthesias of extension predominate than in 
cases in which flexion movements are more numerous. 

The existence of marked contrasts between the experience type and the 
usual mode of living may allow certain conclusions to be drawn concerning 



the genesis of the neurosis (p. 114) concerning the indications for institut- 
ing possible activities of sublimation. 

It is Interesting to compare the of the test before after ana- 

lysis. From our material, the influence of the analysis may vary widely, 
probably for various reasons. Sometimes the shift in experience type Is so 
slight that the will continue to indicate a neurosis though it be almost 

entirely cured. On the cither hand, many of my cases of others show 

a considerable shift of the experience type as a result of the analysis. One 
of these cases Is described In example 12 below, protocols being reproduced 
as they were obtained before after analysis. In such cases there Is an 

Important change In the affectivity, a complete change in personality and an 
equalization of introversiYe and extra tensive features. 

One subject gave no color responses at all before the analysis: after a few 
months of treatment, he produced a number of color answers. This means 
that the suppressed affect became more free and the experience type more 
dilated. In other cases, CF responses were more numerous than FCs before 
analysis; after treatment there were more FCs than CF's, implying a trans- 
formation of egocentric Into adaptive affectivity. The material at hand is 
insufficient for further conclusions but from the cases cited It can be de- 
monstrated experimentally that analysis has a liberating, integrating, and 
equalizing Influence. 

Analysis can also change the intelligence type; this is especially apparent 
in the freeing of certain rigidities of apperceptive types. The rigid W type 
In neurotics who are constantly driven by high ambition due to feelings of 
Insufficiency frequently disappears. Grumblers and persons given to brood- 
ing, though they may have deviations of conceptual type severe enough so 
that it includes Dd and Do responses, can show normal types after analysis. 

Except as noted above, the Importance of the test in psychoanalysis Is 
probably more theoretical than practical. For example, certain relationships 
may exist between the experience type and the regression described by Freud 
in which patients revivify events connected with previous fixations. In such 
situations It may be that the whole experience type In its totality Is the sub- 
ject of the fixation. The question now becomes, how does this revivification 
of fixated experiences come about? In some cases, the experience type may 
have been arrested In its development at an early stage; other faculties which 
have nothing to do with the experience type have carried the Individual in 
his development. Such factors would consist in intellectual training, social 
imitation and other factors which may be acquired independently of the ex- 
perience type. In such cases, the regression is actually faulty progression. 
In other situations, the experience type changes because of emotional sup- 
pressions, and there is a concommitaot narrowing of both introversive and 
extratensive features. Here there is regression In the more strict sense of the 
word, because the narrowed experience type corresponds to an earlier ex- 



perience type in the individual. The of the experience to its for- 

mer narrow reactivates the entire of of the 

together with all Its aspirations memories, Thua the of a 

situation could take place, the of the to iu 

would correspond to the narrowing of the 

A return to an earlier experience of 

of the earlier period may be seen In In 

of these illnesses, even though they be years the 

thoughts, plans and hallucinations 
phenomena have apparently entirely in the interval. 



to the of nor- 

0r to For they are 

of at the of this section may 

as of the In the may be used for 

1* 

26, employed* 

1. Twa their 

cm the side) .... 011+ H 
Two female, lifting their 



II, A butterfly (frequently interpreted; must 

be considered F+) ........ WF+ A 

Two marmots (red above) DF+ A 

111 Two marionette figures WH+ H 

IV. A butterfly (plate reversed, column - like 

middle part and neighboring wings) * . DF A 
An ornament on a piece of furniture (Plate 

in normal position) . . WF+ Orn, 0rig.+ 

V. A bat . . . WF+ A 

VI. A moth (flame-like parts at top of the 

figure) . . . . DF+ A 

A tree (plate reversed, whole picture) . . WF+ PL 

VII. Two human heads (upper third) .... DF+ Hd 

Two animal heads (middle third) .... DF+ Ad 

VIII. (No color-shock) Two bears (red) .... DF+ A 

Rocks (the middle figure**) DF Obj. 

IX. Two clowns or darting flames (brown above) DM+ H 

DCF Fire 

1 For* list of symbols and abbreviations see p. 14. 



- 127 -- 

X. A rabbit's head (green medial! DF * Ai 

Two caterpillars (green medial I DFC * A 

Two mice (gray lateral) DFC- A 

Two pigs' heads (blue medial) DF- Ad 

Two spiders (blue lateral) DF A 



The computation shows: 
Responses: 21. 



W : 5 
D : 16 

Dd etc.: 



F+ 

A 

Orig. 

Apper- 

ceptive 



M : 4 

F : 14 (1-) 

FC : 2 (1) 

CF : 1 

C : 



: 93 /o (1300 + 14 = 93) 
: 1200 H- 21 = 57/o 
: 5%+ 

: W D 



H 

Hd 

A 

Ad 

PI 

Obj. 

Orn. 

Fire 



(8- 



(+) 



Sequence: optimally rigid. 



Conclusions: 

Experience type: 4 M: (2 FC + 1 CF + OC), i. e. more Intro versive 
extratensive features. Affective status: reactive, approachable ( 1 CF), not 
unstable to the point f Bloodiness or Impulsiveness, stabilized by good emo- 
tional adaptability (2 FC) and by Introversive features (4 if)* Good capacity 
for empathy (4 M : 2 FC). Little ambition In intellectual make-up (21 res- 
ponses, 5 W), concretely practical and adaptive (5 W, 16 D), without pettiness 
or pedantry (no Dd, Do, or S). The sequence is optimally rigid, the forms 
are very good, therefore, the conclusion that the thinking Is adaptable. A 
marked tendency to stereotyped associative patterns (57 f /t A). Only one 
original answer, therefore little originality, constricted range of ideas, but 
easy adaptation to the mode of thinking of others. Neither intellectually nor 
emotionally egocentric. On the whole, little activation of the Introversive 
elements, a predominance of the adaptive functions, despite iBtroversive 
experience type. Not imaginative, but does not despise imagination in others. 

The subject is an attendant in an insane asylum; quiet, steadfast, diligent, 
making no fuss about her responsible position, and very much devoted to her 
work 



128 

2. Sample Test of Subject of Above Average Attainments. 
University graduate, age 29. 

1 A bat WF+A 

Two large figures in waving coats standing 

near a basin WM+ H 

Plate reversed, upper lateral part: The ride 

on the Biocksberg 1 Dd M+ H Orig.+ 

. Middle above: The head of a bug . . . . DF+ A 

II Butterfly WF+A 

Red above: Two dwarfs moving towards 

each other DM+ H 

White intermediate figure: Lamp-shade . . SF+ Obj. 

III. Two waiters or men in tails holding vessels WM+ H 

Plate reversed: Enlarged head of a mosquito WF+ A Orig.+ 
Plate reversed: An old woman, wash- woman, 

perhaps, who is holding up her hands (the 

feet of men usually seen are the arms of 

the woman, the body of the woman is 

formed by the male figures including all 

white parts which are lying in between) . WM+ H Orig.+ 
Red above: The knight's head of a chess 

figure DF+ A Orig.+ 

IV. An Indian well for elephants; above the 

basin, below the base ....... WF+ Obj. Orig.+ 

Middle part: The tail of an insect .... DF+ Ad 

Plate reversed (so that the column -like 

middle part is directed upwards). On both 

sides of the middle part: Two women with 

flying scarfs, dancing around a fountain 

(Fountain = middle part) DM+ H Orig.-f- 

Small black extension from middle part: 

Horse's feet . . . . , DdF+ Ad 

Lateral extension of the whole figure: Dogs' 

heads DF+Ad 

V. A bat . . . . WF+ A 

VI. The double-edged axe of Thor ..... WF+ Obj. Orig.+ 
Below, middle: Small insect pincers . . . DdF+ Ad 
Above, the flaming figures: Like flames on 

heraldic weapons .... . . . . . DF+ Obj. 

Whole figure reversed: Two large profiles 

with large noses and Van Dyke beards . WF+ Hd 

1 "Witches ride on the Biocksberg. 



VII. Upper Two . . DF * Hfi 

Two ....... DF-*- ilrl 

Lower 

........... BP~^ A 

...... SF"*- 

MIL (No red: .... 

Gray: of a . . . . . DF Ad Orig.-f- 

Red-yellow: Butterflies . ....... DFC-f A 

cap ....... QbJ* 

White 

of a reptile ........... SF-*- Ad 

IX. figure: Beetle, the 

are brown, the arc . . . SF A Orlg* 

Red: rose ....... PL 

Green, ....... A 

Green, oblique: Two hares . DF-^- A 

X. An artistic design for ...... WCF-t- 

Gray, middle above: Larynx . DdF~f Orig+ 

Gray, above: Skeleton part of skull, 

of an animal .......... DF+ Anat* 

Intermediate figure between gray above 

and red: A sea animal A Orig.+ 

Gray, laterally: Two beetles ...... DP~f~ A 

The whole reversed: A flower, red t the 
petals, inside the stamen and pistil, outside 
the leaves; gray, middle: calyx .... WFC+ PL Orig.-+ 

Blue, laterally: A figure like beetles make 

under the bark of a tree ...... DF+ PL Orig.+ 

Computation: 
Responses: 4L 



D 

Dd 

S 

F+ 

A 

Orig. 

Apper- 

ceptive 

Sequence 



12 

19 
5 
5 

97% 

49% 
41% 



M : 6 

F : 29 (1) 

FC: 4 

CF: 2 (tendency to more) 

r . 

\jt 



H 
Hd. 

A 
Ad 

PL 
Obj. 
Ora. 
Anat. 



6 
3 

14 (1-) 
6 

S 
6 

1 
2 



W D Dd S 
loose 

Rorschacb, Psychodiagnostics. 



, _ 180 

The of P'H W, 0, M an 

the of an 

6 81: (4 FC+ 2 CP+ C) 

the 

for 
10 be 0y ills 

The 
to 

for for W 

of D 

is In to the to the of WY 

of Bd S too we 

he is to but is leas In 

The to corrections but is not 

in is an for 

a to (S), Mot on the 

he EC 10 the S 

in his to Combining emo- 

we for not so 

for as for discovery of 

ii 

The reveal the Broad education the 

of the as well. 

is a very to draw paint. He is 

a M$ conceptions clear. He a well rounded educa- 

Is t to become scattered; he is easily upset. Very tho- 

rough in which attracts his hut jumps from one subject 

to easily. he is very good rapport, both inten- 

sive The culture. Imagery type is visual. 

3. of of Below 

Craftsman, mge 26, 

1. A (because of the wings) . . . "BWF+ A 

II. The (black only) . . . . . BF+ Anat. 

III. Two (certainly net as 

WF+H 

IV. A heart . WF Anat. Orig. 

V. A ........... WF+ A 

VI. The of a blindworm (upper medial DF+ Ad 

VII A (the confluent lower third) . . BF+ A 

VIIL (No color-shock) Two bears or DF+ A 



131 - 

IX. to 

X. of , 



WFC - Anal, 







: 








10, 








w 


5 (1 


M : 


H ; 1 


,^l 






F ; 9 


Hd : 




D 


5 


FC; 1 <-) 


A ; 4 


(-f) 


Dd etc. 


to 


CF: 


Ad : 1 


(4-) 






C : 


4 


(-) 


F-t- 


75% 








A 


50% 








Orig. 


20 % orig, 








Apper- 










ceptive 


DW D 








Sequence 


? to 









This but his a 

of he The of the arc 

leaves the he he has the 

Interpretation. The 

haYe shown must be as are as poor as 

could be and In the DW the 

20% original answers, the of the to in- 

dicate Inferior Intelligence 011 the of The form 

Ylsualization, the conceplive type (5 "W, 5 D), the 

and animal figures are Interpreted of bodies, all fea- 

tures Indicate that the Is not a moron. 

Experience types II : 1 FC as lie CF), 

more extratenslve than Introverslve Type Is strongly coartated, bat 

the coartatlon is certainly not to depression, but to diligence, that Is, to 
a conscious effort to work accurately and to exercise disciplined reasoning. 
(There are no depressive features; the number of W*s especially is too 
for depression, and the tendency toward confabulation Is too marked.) 

50 /o animal responses represents stereotypy which might be even greater 
than the animal percentage indicates. It must be considered that four of the 
answers were anatomical; in uneducated persons anatomical answers always 
indicate a more or less well developed complex concerned with the intelli- 
gence, a desire to do better. 

Emotionally approachable, rather unstable, but not badly adapted to his 
situation. (Based on comparison between F color responses.) 

The subject Is a good, practical workman. He is unintelligent but is able 
to adapt Mraself to various of work. He has little initiative, is stereo- 



132 - 



ti He 10 

be in Ills In the is be- 

of the lie has to to He do 

work., of 

4, 

17. 

L The of a fish . . DoF Ad Grig. 

Two ....... DF+ Ad 

11, A bat (the ....... 0F A Orig. 

led A foot ......... 

Ill Two ......... D0F+ Hd 

The legs of the ...... DoF+ Hd 

IV. An (the 

as legs) DWF A Orig. 

The Two . DoF+ Ad 

V. A bat WF+ A 

VI. The above: Crow's wings . . DoF+ Ad 

VII. The confluent part of the lower third; Just 

like a river . . . . . DdF Map Orig. 

VIII. Bed: Dogs ............ DF+ A 

Red-ye!I0w: Wings DF Ad 

IX. Green: Russia (because Russia is usually 

green on maps) . DC Map Orig. 

Brown ahove: Two horns from an animal . BoF+ Ad 

X. Green medial: Fish DF A 

Yellow medial: Sun and moon DCF Sun 

Blue middle: Two animal heads ..... DF+ Ad 

Computation: 



Responses ; 18. 



W 
D 
Dd 
Do 

F+ 
A 

Orig. 
Apper- 

ceptive 
Sequence 



2 (DW) 

9 
1 
6 

56% 



D Do 
Relatively orderly. 



M : 

F : 
FC: 
CF: 
C : 





16 (9+, 7) 

1 
1 



H 

Hd 

A 

Ad 

Map 

Sun 





3 (2+, 1-) 

5 (2+, 3) 

7 (5+, 2-) 

2 (-) 

I 



The subject was In a *e*ir brf^r* 1 the trft 

Comparison of this the ten a of F * 

W responses, a of Bo, anwer* of 

10f, percentage, the type* of 

Bel Ac! over H A, an extr.ilenve 

type. All of these arc of defects In 

summation up the in The 

five rarity of color the of the to 

we in this not an but a 

torpid Imbecile. 

5* 

43. 

I. A bat ............. WF-A 

Two warriors in armor D3f ~^- H 

II. Two clowns dancing WM-4~ H 

Two animal heads (black only) . . . . . PF-f- Ad 

Two squirrels (red above) ...... PF~^~ A 

III. Two clowns (red above) ....... DFC~ H Grig* 

Two writers advising otter (the black) WM-f- H 

IV. part: An ....... DF H Orig, 

The whole plate is an animal from the bot- 
tom of the sea, a squid, perhaps . . . WF+ A 

The plate reversed: A fountain statue, some- 
one sitting on a stick ....... WM+ H Orig.-f 

V. A bat WF+ A 

Or an airplane . . . . WF Obj* 

VI. A jungle animal .......... WF A 

VII. The confluent lower third: An aeroplane . DF Obj. 

Middle third: Animal heads DF+ Ad 

VIII. Blue and gray together: A carrousel . . . DFC+ Obj. Orig.+ 

An escutcheon WCF Obj. Orig. 

Laterally: Two bears ........ DF+ A 

IX. Brown: Two clowns who want to play 

together DM+ H 

Green: A large bear DF+ A 

X. Green medial: A rabbit ....... DF+ A 

Yellow medial: The inside part of a narcissus DCF+ PL 

Yellow medial: The mast of a ship .... DF+ Obj, 

Blue: Sponges from the bottom of the sea DFC+ PL 

Gray laterally: Crabs DF A 

Blue middle: Like an animal on a coat of 

arms DFC A Orig. 



_ 134 



w 


9 


D 


17 


F+ 


66/ 


A 


46/i 


Orig. 
Apper- 
ceptive 
Sequence 


20 9 /e 

W D 
orderly 



nap tt t a t lam : 
26, 

H : 5 

F : 15 (5) 
PC: 4 (I ) 
CF: 2 
C : 



H 

Hd 

A 

Ad 

PL 

Obj. 



7 (2-) 


10 (3~) 
2 
2 
5 (3 ) 



type: 5 M (4 PC, 2 CF, C The subject a 

the of color a joy and freedom in 

color. The is The M respon- 

ses to be she the vividly but fre- 

quently out the which moved only later. Fortkerinere, 

the are not as conceived as those in examples 1 and 2 



The F+*/& is for the normal ambiecpiml and die animal percentage 

h too There is appearance of confabulation, especially in the 

for the colored plates. 

Intelligence: An energetic, generous type, without pettiness. More whole 
responses. The original answers are not good for the most part. 
Such a result comld be combined with 5 M?s only in case of manic mood. 

Emotionally unstable, excited. There is indication of impulsiveness. Ego- 
centric extrateasive but at the same time full of a desire to participate, to 
talk* to be active. 

The extratensive features of the personality are more activated than the 
introversive. This may be seen from the fact that the inlroversive factors do 
not correipond to one another; normal subjects have a greater number of 
good original responses if they achieve 5 MPs. The kind of original answers 
given reveals the subject to be uneducated. 

The subject is mildly cyclothymic and is generally in a hypomanic state. 
Short depressive phases occur only rarely. She is usually full of energy with 
a considerable urge toward activity but flif^hty and inconsiderate as are the 
egocentries. Because she is so flighty, and localise of the lack of inhibitions 
the appears less intelligent than she really is, 



1SS -- 

6* IB an In 

age 29, 
L A ........*,.. WP'* A 



A . WF"* 1 Obj. 

a (on the of the 

half of the ........ lid 

Ms 
side .........* 

An . 1DP+ H 

on A 

on Its belly ........... A 

II. Two ........ H 

Lamp ...... SP4 Gbj.4"* 

The of the A 

III. ......... 

Red above: ...... DF-f A 

The Tw0 

.......... DF+ Hi 

Breast and f the 

......... * 

Red middle: tie . . DFC+ Obj. 

IV. Used boots ............ DP+ Obj. 

Laterally: ..... .... 

Above, small Ivy leaf ...... DdF+ PL 

The whole figure: Horite, f rom story 

of and Morit% as he into the WH+ H Orig.-f 

V. A bat . . ....... .... A 

Head: A hare's head . ....... DF+ Ad 

Profile at lower edge of wing: 

night watchman ......... Hd Orig.+ 

Hiddle of bat: the head without the 

and legs: A Zurich policeman in civil 

clothes. I know him ........ H Oiig.+ 

VI* Uppermost part: Light buoy . ..... DF+ Obj. 

Large part: A stretched ox-hide .... DF+ Obj. 

Plate placed on narrow edge: Southern coast 

of U. S. A. including Florida ..... DF+ Map 

VH. An exhibit of larvae ... ..... WF+ Ad Orig.+ 

Below: A carnival article with a buckle in 

the middle ...... ..... BF Obj. 

Reversed: Two dansense* whose head-dresses 

touch each other in the back .... WM+ H Orig.+ 



130 



VIII. A hat: the Inter- 

the two 

is the fan*; the yel- 

low-red are the , * . . . DPC~^~ H Orlg.4" 

Mice .......... A 

Yellow-red An old 

............. Obj. Orig.+ 

Or two ,,.** DFC Anat. 

IX. over WCF4- 

DM+H 

Ga the of the at the 

of the brown; The of an 

............ DF+Ad 

the A . . * . . DP+ Obj. Orig.+ 

X. 

with a (above, DM+ H Orig.-f 

Two cornflowers .... DFC+ PL 
Green, middle: hair with 

DF+ Obj. Orig.+ 

Gray laterally* conceived together with blue 

Bowl of a , DiF+ Obj. Orig.+ 

Blue middle: A chat between two foxes who 

are in a (just the heads) . . . DF+ Ad 

Computation: 
Responses: 41. 



D 

Dd 
S 

F+ 

A 

Orig. 

Apper- 
ceptive 
Sequence 



9 

26 

5 

I 

93 V 

27^/0 



H : 7 

F : 28 (2) 
FC: 5 (1) 
CF: 1 (tendency 
to more) 



W D 

optimally rigid. 



H 
Hd 
A 
Ad 

Plant 
Obj. 

Anat. 

Map 

Hell 



10 
4 

8 (1) 
3 

2 

11 (1) 

1 ( ) 

1 
I 



This full record is included here to illustrate the very adaptable intelli- 
gence as it shows in the test. The subject is a member of a talented family 
who became a merchant more because of external circumstances than of his 
own desires. Most typical finding is the sequence of F and M responses; fre- 
quently the.MTs appear only after a number of F's are given. It is character- 



137 

Istie all the answers are is not > ttip of a 

mealth of as the of 

a in 

processes of At the Is of 

cession. There Is no In the to W 

ses, but the preference for ITs Is In of a 

frame of mind. This concrete of In in the 

object The the a 

peculiar of concrete an- 

swers never show 

numerous from of As for the re- 

sponses^ here there a few are 

easy for the subject In to the of the an 

example of these is the modernistic tie. On the m 

rich experience type with introvcralvc 

cultivated because of lack of time. Life on for 

disciplined thinking. The subject orderly *> a 

well developed capacity for rapport, 

adaptability is particularly good. The control of is 

furthermore, by those answers in which the colored the white 

intermediate spaces are jointly interpreted almost as were per- 

ceived like placards. No evidence of pedantry or The 

Intro versive trends, the availability of associations the emotional adapt- 

ability taken together form the basis for a certain talent for humor in the 
subject. He is a good observer and reports what he has experienced 

in an original manner. 

?. Imaginative Individual. 
Female, age 36. 

I. Two men swearing something on an altar . WH4" H Orig.+ 
II. Two young dogs juggling something on 

their noses WF+ A Orig.+ 

III. Two jilted suitors who are meeting each 

other; they hold bouquets in their hands WM+ H 

IV. Reversed: middle part: A tiny king from 

a fairy tale. He is greeting two queens 
in waving veils who approach from the 
right and left DM+ H Orig.+ 

Placed on narrow edge: Swan swimming 

along the bank of a river DF4 A Orig.+ 

Likewise: The extensions usually considered 
as boots, dogs 7 heads, etc.: A bent over 
old woman standing in front of a tomb . DH4- H Orig.+ 



138 - 



of 
lips ........ DP 4 - Hd 

V. A ......*... A 

11, A to a .,.,.. DF4* Obj. 

in a 

*** IMF 4 - 
VII* 

,...*..*. DF+ Hd 

DF+ Ad 
, A a . . . . . DP+ A 

A ttle ....... WFC+ 

A fire at tic ........ DCP+ Fire 

A ....... DF-f Obj. Orig 

of the the 

is ........ DF+ PL 

the . . DF+ A 

is the of a fly 

......... 4 . WFC A Orig. 

IX, 

............ H 

oa A 

a with i doll ........ H 

in position); of a 

red DF+ Hd 

The reversed: Eruption of Aetna . . WCF+ Aetna 

X. "Women 

other . . . . DBf+ H 

Gray, ........ DF+ A 

Blue: Crabs or sea-anemone ...... DF+ A 

Green, medial: Sea-horse DF-)r A 



W 
D 
Dd 

F+ 

A 

Orig. 

Apper- 



Sequence 



7 

19 
1 

100 / 

36% 
30 



Computation: 
Responses; 27. 

M : 7 

F : 16 

FC: 2 (1) 

CF: 2 

C : indicated 



W D partially 
combined 
optimally rigid 



H 

Hd 

A 

Ad 

Obj. 

Plant 

Fire, Aetna 

Style 



type: 7 M- |2 FC * CF * C if. 

to to 

of al ilic M C are 

are 
arc to tie hs 

has it fay of tsre 

of W D 

of concrete, or 

are of the of 

are Vs. He are 

arc of 

color. 

The are In 

ing Its la In the 00 

the to Is 

than the to is of 

it the 

there Is in the a for 

The type is at the 

aesthetic. Auditory Is in 

Affectivity: No color no of 

tures. Good emotional approach to for the 

emotional life Is strong Impulsive, by the 

of the affect which are at as as the 

tloned above. This leads to affective to in the im- 

pulsiveness is more important. The Is, 

stabilized by the Introverslve of the The is 

Intensive than extensive. 

The subject Is from a talented family and Is mud 

very good capacity for synthesis* Confabulation Is the 

making for combination (synthesis) become so powerful in the moody 
which sometimes appear that they lead to the evolution of 
like experiences. The visual imagery is rivid to 100 f /t F+ The 

ject does not draw but has a fine feeling for composition* Enjoys bright 
colors. 

8. Pedant. 

Female* age 30. Housework* 

I. Two wings DoF+ Ad 

II Two bears* heads (black alone) ..... DP+ Ad 

III. Two monkey heads . . . DoF+ Ad 

IV. Skin of an animal . WF+ A 

V. Bat .............. W+ A 



140 



VI. Two reversed, the upper 

of the figure); There are two clear pro- 
Van Dyke beards. (The whole 
Is often as two turn- 

ing their on each other) .... 

V1L lower third: Butterfly . . . . 

Till. Two .......... 

IX, medially: Two owls . . . 

of a cat 

X. of i hare 

Gray Two * ... * 

Gray laterally: Cockroach ....... 

Computation: 
Responses; 13. 



Hd 

DF+A 
DF+A 

DdF A Orig*. 
DF+Ad 
DF+Ad 
DF+Hd 
DF+A 



w 


2 


M : 





D 


7 


F : ] 


13 (1 ) 


Do 


3 (tendency 


FC: 







to more) 


CF: 





Dd 


1 


C : 





F4- 


93/e 






A 


85/e 






Orig. 


8/o 






Apper- 








ceptive 


D Do 






Sequence 


Indication of 


reversal 





H : 

Hd : 2 
A : 6 
Ad : 5 



The experience type is completely coartated by conscientiousness and dili- 
gence. Modest, quiet, emotionally stable. There is stereotypy, poverty of ideas 
and lack of originality. No grumbling. Very strict with herself. Little capa- 
city for affective rapport, but not depressed. This is the test of a housewife 
and such findings are not infrequently seen in this group, namely, they are 
practical, intelligent except for the restrictions of pedantry and the fact 
that the intelligence has been stereotyped early and is quite unassuming. 

9. Normal, Advanced Age. 

Female, age 80. Well-preserved mentally. 

I. Plate reversed: Flower vase DF+Obj. 

Plate upright: A ship with two people 

(upper part) DF Obj. Orig. 



- - III 

Tilt- A . . . . IF \ 

The ali FH*M 

........... DilF A Or*;?. 

Two In the . . . D*iF> Hi! 

The A . . . . H F Obj. 

II. Keel: Two of -- 
The red in- 
to the the ....... DP- - A - 

The Two . . . . . DF * A 

. *~ A 

DF-*~ A 

III. Acrobats as 

for ........ DF4- H 

outer figures: at 

........... DF-f-A 

(the legs of the * . . A 

..... OP-+A 

IV. A monster, is WF r- A 

part: An owl . . . 

Plate on narrow edge, the of 

A woman with a full of on 

back. Not seen as moving ...... DF+ H Or% w "f" 

V. A butterfly ........... WF-f- A 

VI. The body of a butterfly ....... WF A Grig* 

VII. Again a butterfly (lower confluent third) . BF~f A 
Upper and middle third together: An animal, 

just like a leaping dog DF A 

VIII. It*s pretty.* A wild boar (red) DF+ A 

Blue and gray: Butterfly DF A Orig.- 

IX. Between the brown and green: Head of a 

horse DF+Ad 

Red diagonal: Head with pipe in the mouth DF+ Hd 

X. Gray laterally; Beetle, mouth like that of 

a pig DF+ A 

Blue laterally: A beetle with all horns . . DF A 

Gray middle: Toads DF A 

Blue middle: The heads of two dogs . . . DF~h Ad 

Green laterally: A sheep lying down . . . DF-+ A 
Yellow in middle: The head of a child, in 

a cloud DF Hd 



w 


5 (3-) 


D 


24 


Dd 


2 


F-- 


65/6 


A 


74V 


Orig. 


26% r 


Apper- 




eeptive 


W D 


Sequence 


mixed 



142 

Computation: 

31* 

M : 

31 (11-) 



F 
FC: 
CF; 
: 









H : 2 
Hd : 3 (2--) 
A : 21 {? ) 
Ad : 2 
Obj.: 3 



the proved to be wrong, 

the the visualization led 

me to or reached a level 

of as the cases stowed, 

be otherwise 

I no as to the age of the the was 

of stereotypy. 



Neuroses. 

10. 

age 30. 

I. A 

II. Two tricks* As for the red t 1 

no it can be . . . , DF+ A 

111* Two with ^ats in their 

each ........... H 

IV. A ............. WF+ A 

V. A sort of .......... WF+ A 

VI. Just like a .......... WF+ A 

VII. Just the of a woman WF Anat. 

. A ............. DF+ A 

God, colors! Funny! I don't know a 



141 



IX. A of and OF - 

J to A 

of 
X. like at the of the *ea, 









w 


6 


M : 1 




D 


4 


F : 9 ,'l-) 








FC: 




F-f- 


86% 


CF: 1 




A 


70% 


C : strongly 


indicated 


Orig. 


0/o 






Apper- 








ceptive 


W D 






Sequence 


? (only one 


answer each) 





1 

Hd 

A 
Ad 



Color very of is 

to 10- 

color is, 

however, by the 

in the 
dictable, 
original responses). 

11. 



S7 

1 . . . . . 

Two reacting for . . . . 

Plate on narrow edge, A in 

Pope's tiara ........... 

II. A human pelvis .......... 

Black: Two pairs of bloomers . . . . . 

Reversed: Two chopped, . . 

Black diagonal: Two ...... 

111. Two Homnncull .......... 

Two fish 

Butterfly ......... 

Plate reversed, middle Two 

degenerated heads ........ 

laterally: Little or dog ... 



Hd 

WF 

Obj. 

Hi Orig. 
DF+ Obj. 

DF+H 
DF+A 
DF+A 

DF+Hd 
BF-i-A 



_ 144 

IV* The A of . . . . WF 

The of . DF A 

.......... DF A 

The of the of a ci0g . . . DF-t- Ad 

a . . BF-*"- Obj. Orig+ 

boot: a or a 

............ 

Griffin, the front DF+ A Orig.~t" 

of boot, vertically: 

over a .......... DM+ H Orig.+ 

The A of 

of ......... DdF-T- Obj. Orig.+ 

A contour: A . . . . . DdF-f- Hcl Orlg.+ 

The heel of the A . . . . . DdF4- PL Orig.-f 

Next to diagonally: A 

face .......... Hd Or%.+ 

V. A bat ............. WF+ A 

Reversed: . . . W+ A 

Plate on narrow edge: An old woman carry- 
Ing under her arm * . . WM4~ H Orig.+ 

At upper of wing of bat: A human 

profile, with beginning cancer of nose . DF+ Hd 

The ends of wings of the bat: Two gnawed 

calf bones ........... DdF+ Obj. Orig.+ 

VI. Church flags (the whole plate) WF+ Obj. Orig.+ 

The two extensions, lateral and below the 

large blot: Two men kneeling . DdM+ H Orlg.+ 

line: Curling iron ....... DdF+ Obj. Orlg.+ 

VII. A butterfly (confluent lower third) . . . DF+ A 

Middle third: Bears' beads chopped off . . DF+ Ad 

Upper part: Degenerated human heads . . DF+ Hd 
Upper and middle third tog-ether: Human 

pelvis . DF Anat. Orig. 

VIII. Two small young bears DF+ A 

Each bear is stepping on the wing of a 

butterfly with one of its feet* . . . . DFC+ A 

Two blue flags DFC+ Obj. 

Gray above: A coat of arms DF Escutcheon 

^Something between a woman's bloomers DF Obj. Orig. 

and a pelvis with skin removed .... DCF Anat. Orig. 
(The red and yellow butterfly reversed.) 

IX. A skeleton with spine WCF Anat. 



_ 145 



On narrow red: A off; 

is 
Green: A In the 

The is cut off at the . 

The brown Two 

medial* are the the 

are the . . . . . 

Very of the Two 

... . . 

And two .......... 

In the line, In the of the 

A cross with a boy to it . . . . . 

X. Blue: Squids ........... 

Gray laterally: Two ...... 

Green above: A ....... 

Blue middle: Two men holding to other 

over an abyss .......... 

Gray above middle: Two mice on 

their hind legs ......... 

Between the mice, using the gray parts, 

too: The Dalai-Lama, just the head . . . 

Computation : 
Responses: 55, 

M : 7 

F : 43 (10) 
FC: 2 
CF: 3 
C : 



DF- lid 

DF * fid 



Obj. 
Obj. 

DdM-t-HOrig.-^- 



DF-^ Orig,-*- 
H Orig.4- 

DF A 
DdF+Hd Orig.* 



W 


8 (4-) 


D 


33 


Dd 


13 


S 





Do 


1 


F4- 


77% 


A 


29% 


Orig. 


50/o 


Apper- 




cfeptive 


W D Dd 


Sequence 


mixed 



H 


7 


Hd 


12 


A 


14 (2) 


Ad 


2 


Anat. 


5 (-) 


Obj. 


12 (3-) 


Coat of 




arms 


2 (-) 


Plant 


1 



Intelligence: Capability for making abstractions and combinations is small. 
The number of whole responses is small compared with the number of MPs 
and original answers. A person who grasps details. In spite of this, the sub- 
ject cannot be said to be practical minded because 50% original answers are 

Horse hach, Psyehodiagnostics. 10 



present because of the numerous Dd responses. The combination of the 

latter with the poor!} interpreted W lead** to the concitision that there is a 
tendency toward indolence, opportunism. In reasoning. Experience 

type: 7 M: |2 FC i 3 CF ; - O, i.e., rattier marked intro\ersive features 
extratenme features marked. The color answers are for the most 

CF; therefore, the affccttvity Is labile egocentric. No significant 

impulsiveness but subject is temperamental moody. Irritable and sensi- 

tive. There is present In this person, but it is sub- 

merged by the egocentricity. 

The the kind of original answers Is important; original 

up practically 50*/o of the interpretations. Nevertheless* the 
subject is not Imaginative, He enjoys Interpretations, but his inter- 

pretations do the combinatory character typical of the really. 

person. The type of the original responses shows that the sub- 
ject is not a specialist. 

The is not imaginative* but is certainly given to fantasy. The content 

of the answers reveals to extent the subject matter of these 

to wit, women, female dress, questions of degeneration, sado-maso- 
chistic themes (the bodies hacked off and bloody, the boy crucified), and 
finally, religious questions. 

The M responses are based on flexion kinaesthesias for the most part 
bent women ami men. This reveals the passive individual who is simply re- 
bigned to his *fate*>. 

His intelligence is passive and grasps only what crosses its path and 
pleases. He behaves passively in regard to his own introversive and extra- 
tensive features. He sinks into his own fantasies as easily as he is influenced 
by hi* companions or is controlled by his moods. He succumbs without re- 
sistance to hypochondriacal introspections, in fact to his whole illness. His 
activities consist in self- torture; his life is that of a dreamer apart from the 
world about him, interested in very few things. 

The ^neurasthenia^ is, in reality, primarily arrest of development. The 
whole psychic life of the patient is very like that of a day-dreaming child. 
There are no signs of schizophrenia. 

12. Compulsion Neurosis. 
Professional Man, age 28. 

L Two bears* heads DoF+ Ad 

The body of a butterfly DF+ Ad 

Lower point: Female sex organs .... DdF Sex 

The small figures above: Uvula DF Anat. Orig. 

Laterally: individual spots: Splinters of 

shrapnel DdF+ Obj. 



! 17 - 

Intermediate figure: The j SP * \i! 

The wings: IlaKes of . . Olbj* Origr. 

The Two rrrliiiins , DM * H 

Darker fijiurts inside tlr* Dev- 

Illsli figure. . , * II Orlg."^* 

The wiiole figure: A 

with preyed * . DM H II 

II. Two up 

.......... DM - II 

below: sun ........ - Sun 

Lateral contour: of a ... ** 

The OB the inner of the 

............ Ad 

Black: Animal ........ DP-*- Ad 

Intermediate figure: . SF T- Obj. 

III. Waiters in frocks in a caricatured position. 

taking off their Their WM-*- H 

fish ............. OF t A 

Above red: Small monkeys^ silting . . . DF4- A 

Black middle figures: Mice ...... DF*^- A 

IV, Part of an elephant (laterally) ..... OF- At! 

The same: Two gnarled branches .... DF-*-~ PL 

Or measuring worms ........ UF*^ A 

Middle column: Part of the body of a 

butterfly DP~r Ad 

The whole Is an aninial skin ...... WF-f A 

Laterally, below the lateral extensions to- 
gether with outer contour of the hoot; An 

Eskimo in a sleeping-sack DU~f H 

The whole is also a figure on & chair . . . WMHr H 

Plate 03d narrow edge: A woman walking, 

bent over DM" 4 - H 

Intermediate figure: Figures cut by a fret- 
saw . SF- Obj. 

V. A bat WF+ A 

Below: Sexual organ opened up .... DdF- SexOrig. 

Lateral extensions; Legs in sport socks . . DoF4" Hd Orig.~ 

Under the bat's wings: Profile with bushy 

eyebrows DdF+ Hd 

Thin lateral extensions: Strongly magnified 

legs of insects .......... DdF+ Ad 

End of the thick extensions: Bear's paw . . DdF+ Ad 

Head of bat: Head with derby hat .... DdF+ Hd 



148 

\L .......... DF+Obj. 

The skin ..... WF+ A 

The aboe: Bird's , . . . . DF~f Ad 

At the of the cross: or . . DFC+ Moss 

The. laterally: in 

lapidary style . DdF+ Ad 

VII. Upper head ...... 

below: ....... DF+A 

...... DF+ Ad 

reversed; Clouds on which God, the 

Father, Is enthroned WF+ Picture Orlg.+ 

Lower third: Foetus ........ DF Anal. Orig. 

part: Cat to jump * . . . . DF A Orig.+ 

VIII Mice (red) . . . DF+A 

Bine: A kind of crystal growing out of a 

rock DCF+Obj. 

Gray above; Dog^s body stretched out . . DF+ A 0rig.+ 
Intermediate part between the two exten- 
sions: Thorax .......... SF+ Anat. 

Gray: Deer horns ......... DF+ Ad 

Also the middle: Clothes, laundry, or some- 

like that ......... DCF+ Obj. 

IX. Claws of a slag beetle ........ DoF+ Ad 

Figure with sabres , DM+ H 

Green transverse; A man with glasses, the 
hair is combed back, the head is seen 

moving ............ DM+HdObj.+ 

Reverseci: The whole is like a flower . . . WCF+ PL 

Middle figure; Bust DF+ Obj. 

In the middle, between the green and red 

parts: Something smoking DdCF Smoke 

Red transverse: A child bundled op ... DF+ H 
Middle of intermediate figure: A central 

light which radiates and forms figures WFC+ Abst. Orig.+ 

X. Blue laterally: Sea animals, like crabs . . DF+ A 

Blue middle: Two steers DF A 

Green: Caterpillars ......... DFC+ A 

Green middle, pale parts: Sexual organ of 

a woman DdF' Sex 

Gray above: Small animals with eyes and 

month DF+A 

The gray stick above: Mast ...... DF+ Obj. 

Gray laterally: Like a mouse DF A 



The red: .......... I)F 

An of reel: A 

.....*....., I)F A Ori:r, 

Green middle^ reversed: of a 

........ I)F * Ad ' 

Computation : 
71. 



^ 


8 


M : 


10 


I) 


41 


F : 


52 (8- 


D<! 


12 


PC: 


3 


S 


4 


OF: 


6 


Do 


3 


: 




F-u 


85 /o 






A 


45 /o 






Orig. 


24/o 






Apper- 








ceptive 


W D Dd 






Sequence 


on the whole* 


rather 


loose 



H 


10 


lid 


6 


A 


17 f3 f 


Ad 


15 


Obj. 

Plant 


<) 

2 


Anal. 
Sex 


3 (2- I 
3 {-) 


Picture 


I 


Sim 




Moss 
Meat 


4 


Siu0ke 




: 


1 



The experience type Is broad: 10 M (3 FC -*- 6 CF + C Indicated). The 
type is nevertheless doubtlessly coartated. The M only after 

a few forms have been given. The conscious searching for Interpretations 
causes the suppression of the tendency to indulge his Impulsive responses* 
This indicates suppression of the introversive features. Color, on the other 
hand, when it is involved in interpretations, gives rise to poor form visualiza- 
tion; it becomes uneven and irregular. Reel is avoided except for Plate VIII 
where the distinct animal figure is the first thing the eye falls upon. Except 
for the anatomical answers, the form visualization is clear. The anatomical 
and original responses indicate strong and conscious intellectual ambitious- 
ness. There is a wealth of associations loosely connected; associations are 
available and clear. Considering these last features, slereotypy is too marked 
and this is due to that the fact that the subject tries to interpret sharp forms 
by conscious effort. The apperceptive type suffers on this account; there is too 
rapid a shift from W to D and the succession loses itself in Dd responses 
too rapidly. The conscious control of interpretations permits 3 Do responses 
to creep into the results. The case shows a clear lack of the proper distribu- 
tion of the energy of logical function on important and unimportant matters, 
an insufficiency of the ability to make abstractions, and there Is the ambi- 
tion to give a large quantitiy of answers thus allowing banal interpretations 



150 

to appear. On the whole, there is a certain scattering which, however, does 
not give the impression of being schizophrenic in character. 

Affectivity is very active; egocentric features are far more active than 
adaptive ones. The capacity for emotional understanding is not very great and 
is liable to be overwhelmed by the egocentric affect. It is clear that the af- 
fective instability is severe enough to include impulsive reactions, rages, stub- 
bornness, emotional outbursts and various moods. 

Introversive features are. without doubt, subjugated to and suppressed 
by conscious functions. Extratensive features are under similar control, but 
every now and then escape control to give rise to sudden impulsive outbursts. 
Both introversive and extratensive tendencies should be subject to a controll- 
ing mechanism according to the outline of the pathology of neurosis given 
earlier and we find that this is the case here. The active energy is not 
directed toward either the introversive or the extratensive features of the 
personality, but acts primarily in accentuating the conscious functions. The 
diagnosis of compulsion neurosis can be made in this case quite definitely for 
the following reasons; there is suppression of affective response, a coartative 
process is certainly active, the experience type is almost ambiequal, and 
finally there is a tendency to give Do responses and toward exaggerated self- 
control. Furthermore, it can be concluded that the compulsions are more 
introversive than extratensive since the introversive features are more easily 
aroused (more M than C responses); in other words, compulsive fantasies are 
more in evidence than compulsive acts. Furthermore, since form visualization 
is good and the general attitude of ambition to produce quantity is apparent, 
it can be assumed that the compulsion symptoms are, like other functions, 
controlled by the conscious functions to the greatest extent, and the neurosis 
as well as the whole compulsive condition is. recognised by the subject. 

There are 4 S responses in the record. These represent the factors of 
struggle; they are the fighting factors.^. Their effect extends to the intelli- 
gence and shows an attitude of energetic oppositionalism so that the subject 
attempts to demonstrate viewpoints which are usually overlooked. They 
tit wart the suggestibility evidenced by the CF responses and represent nega- 
tive suggestibility which is in itself an evidence of conflict against being 
suggestible. Finally, the S responses represent opposition to everything, even 
the extratensive features so that there is mistrust regarding others. There is 
scepticism in regard to the introversive features, a deep sense of insufficiency 
even in regard to the libidinized function, reasoning, resulting in compulsive 
doubts, tormenting ambitiojns. pedantic thoroughness, a grumbling state of 
inability to finish anything and a desire to know everything. 

The results in this case show the compulsion neurosis so clearly that they 
allow the following further conclusions: there is compulsive sensitivity and an 
irritability which, because of the over-emphasis of self-control, must con- 
tinually turn against the subject himself: there are compulsive attempts to 



r everything Hithout a f**r 

arthlH aspiration shown by the tht* an* 

almost exehisivelj extension movement*. All if, 

doubting* brooding* a settle of of in liti % to 

anil a lark in capacity to experiences. 

After five months of the the 

following finding: 

L Laterally; Bear* turning , . . . OF * A 

Ai**o, men*** ......... DoF * Hi! 

The wings of an ...... DP * 

Middle part: Danseuse ........ BH^ H 

Plate reversed* lateral of figure* at 

the side: Children's ...... DdF Hci 

Plate reversed, middle part: 

sitting ............ DM f H Grig.-*- 

Part of the middle section: Arcli of a DdF"* Obj. 

Intermediate figure; Bird ...... SF* A 

The plate upright: Head with hooc! . . . DdF-*- 

II. Oil exploding ......... WCF-*- Obj. 

Head of an (red) ...... DF- 1 - Ad 

Just like a pair of monks who are 

a fire and dancing around it* rc 

versed: The monks ........ DM-f H Grig.+ 

Red; The fire DCF Fire 

Red above: Shoe and sock, well seen, re- 
versed . DF+Obj. 

Or a hand with a very much enlarged finger BF Hd Orig. 

Black: Dog's heads DF- 1 - Ad 

Also blaek: A man slicking his head in Ms 

collar, ready to scold ....... DM+HOri|c.+ 

Transition into gray: Like a distant staircase DdF 4- Ldscp. Orig+ 

III. Red aho\e: Small monkeys ...... DF4 A 

Whole plate: A waiter in a frock coat . . WM+ H 

Middle, red: Red cravat ....... DFOF Obj. 

Middle black figures: Small bears .... DP+ A 

The same reversed: A little man bending 

down DM4 HOrig.4" 

Red laterally: Young bear, but it lias a leg 

like a goat . DF~f A 

IV. An animal skin WF+ A 

Two figures with waving scarfs* running to- 
ward the middle column: Goddesses of 

R*\cnge ............ DM ; H 



......... 

the Two 

on .......... DdM+ H Grig.- 4 - 

...... SF4- A Orig.4* 

Qtt Woman with a over 

her of . . . . . DM-^ H Orig.+ 

Whole plate: A in a with 

. 

V. A bat ............. A 

Upper of wings: . DF~h Hd 

VI. Reversed: Two boys; of the 

figure: Larger part: Body 

of boys, turning to other WH- 4 - H Orig.4- 

Uprlght: . WF+ Obj. Orig.+ 

0n narrow extensions: A 

torso, arm, the left one 

is DBI+- H Orig.+ 

In the line: A turned object as 

formerly used on furniture ..... DF4" Obj. 
The figures: A waving coat . . . PF~{~ Obj. 

Narrow edge, the upper small extension of 
large blot: An arm raising itself from 

the chaos DdM+HdOrig.+ 

The pliers between the heads, above middle: 

Nat cracker DdF+ Obj. Orig.+ 

In between: Labia of the vulva DdF+ Sex 

VII. Upper part: Head of a supercilious woman DF+ Hd 
Horn of the middle third: The paws of a 

Pinscher DdF+ Ad Orig.+ 

The whole: Heavy jewelry ...... WF+ Orn. Orig.+ 

Middle part: Bears" heads DF+ Ad 

On narrow edge, middle third: Head of a 

man. He is talking ........ DM+ Hd 

Lower third: Figures in winter capes . . . D3M+ H Orig.+ 
At the joint of the two lower thirds: Naked 

man . , DdF+ H Orig.+ 

The whole: A toy where one hammer must 

hit the other WF Obj. Orig.+ 

The connecting piece between the upper and 

middle third: Shoulder and arm . . . DdF+ Hd Orig.+ 

VIII. Mice . f DF+A 

Gray: Hands of a lady. She is allowing some- 
one to kiss her hand DM+ Hd 



!ietwfi*n 
......... . , * . SF 

(red-yellow, ami blaei . . . . j \, ""* 

Red-yellow: 0^ ........ DF S 

Two .......... DFC * Obj. 

The whole: A danee the*** . . WFC * 

IX. in They are . DM** II 

On edge* A fat . , . DM**- H Orig. -*~ 

Ked; Child** The A 

led up .......... DF^ Hd 

Intermediate figure, A for 

.......... SF-r 

Or a ............ SF-*- 

X. Sea ...... DFC-r PL 

Green., middle; A . . . DFC- 1 * A 

Gray: Ship's ......... OF- 1 - Gbj. 

Blue, laterally: Small 

through one another ....... DdM-+- H Orig+ 

Gray, laterally, upright: Primitive 

being ............. DM-*- H 

Blue: A single point. A gesticulating orator DdM-f* H Otig.4- 
Another point: A weasel looking DdF+ A Orig+ 

Blue, middle: Dogs' ...... DF+ Ad 

Or figures stretching their hands to 

other 

Pale green, between the caterpillars: Little 

figure with halo DF+ H Origrf 

Yeilow: Sunflowers, afler Kreidolf . . . DCF+ PL 
Blue point: Woman running away in terror; 

or looking at it this way, she has fallen 

on her back 

Computation: 
Responses: 76. 

V : 10 M : 24 (!) ' H 23 

D : 44 F : 43 (5) Hd 11 (1) 

Dd : 16 FC: 6 A 14 (1 ) 

S : 5 CF: 3 Ad 5 (1 ) 

Do : 1 C : indicated Plant 2 

Obj. 14 (2) 



. 154 -- 

F > : Anat. 

A : 25% Sex 



rn. 



: il i; o 0: 

Apper- Ldiscp. 

ceptue : W -I) --Del Comb. 

Sequence: rather Fire 



1 

2 (I -) 

1 
i 
i 



Interpretations are the same as in first test nine times, and in six 

the picture Is the although ihe meaning attributed is some- 

what different in the first experiment. 

The second set of results, obtained after the analysis* are quite different 
from the first. The experience type changed quite completely. The intro- 

verflive features arc more free are powerful than they were before. 

The affectivity is more adaptive egocentric (F*s predominate over 

CFs). The affective load is gone. There lias been a in adap lability and 

emotional approach rapport is Introversive and extrafenslve 

are more free; the of coartalion so significantly apparent in the 

first in the of introversive exlratensive features are 

rare. The capacity for experiencing is again undistorted, 
The correlated with the M responses have changed in accord with 

the in MV The percent original answers is far larger and the per- 

responses is much Here and there a few free abstractions 

combinations appear in the interpretations. The greater freedom is also 
Indicated in the relationship between H and A responses on the one hand, 
the Hd**8 and Ad's on the other; there has been quite a shift in both. 
The Intelligence type lias been changed the least* There lias been an In- 
crease in the number of WB and a decrease in D's; this is an expression of 
the greater freedom and energy of the associative activity. The shifts here 
are not nearly so great as in the case of the experience type, however. Rea- 
soning is still concrete, tends to get lost in much detail, and is unaccustomed 
to grasp the whole of any situation* 

These results are partly due to the marked diligence in producing a large 
quantity of responses. This is clearly apparent when the results of this dili- 
gence are neglected by considering only the first four answers to each plate. 
The findings are thru as follows: 

Computation of first set of data: 
Responses: 40. 

W : 5 M : 4 II : 3 

I) : 25 F : 31 Hd : 5 

Del : 6 FC: 2 A : 12 



OM : 3 CIF: 3 In , 8 

^ * I : f j J 

&* , 3 

F = RP*. A fiat: 2 
\ ; "">0 fl * 



Computation of the .e<rntl set of data; 
Responses: 38, 

M : II H JO 

F : 21 Hd 

FC: 1 A 



I),! 
Do 

S 



F 
A 



32 /o 

21 ', 



CF: 2 Arl 

C : Ohj. 

Anat. 

Sex. 



8 



The amhieqiialit) of experience Is in set of for 

the first test, as it is in the complete computation. All 
mentioned In the discussion of tin* full are In 

The features indicating improvement In the of the 

test are expressed equally well in the latter computation. Comparison of the 
two computations shows the influence of the for interpretation** 

that Is. of the ambition to produce a large quantity of responses. 

The subject has changed In the course of the analysis. That reflex 
of compulsive* conscious guard o\er every experience from with- 

in or without, causing the strangulation of the capacity to experience, has 
disappeared. Frreil of eoartatlon, the introvemve and extratemive features 
ha\e ciliated to reach a type again capable of experiencing fully. This dilata- 
tion is seen in main phenomena of affective and intellectual functioning. 

13. *- Nervous Exhaustion*/. 
Female, aged 45. 

L Thinks for a long time, then: AH that re- 
call* the pa*t life. I recognize the ab- 
domen. (Middle, above, reversed.) . . DF- Sex Ori^.~ 
\Vhen I re\er^e tli* s plate, I also see the 

male se\ organ, f Black below middle.) . DdF~ Sex Grip.*- ~ 
II. Afiain the same then* below, blood (red 

radiating fimmM DC Blootl 



_ 158 

^Everything from the past.* The sex 

point. above) DF Sex Orig. 

III. \Tvfo clowns are with 

other, path- 

ike picture (the red figure), they 

can't get together A ........ WM- 4 - H 

IV. <'Some sort of plant* ........ W-f- PL 

V. Bat .............. WF+ A 

VI. uThe lower part me of 

organs-* ........... DdF Sex 

Thc part, too only middle part DdF~^~ Sex 

VII. I wonder whether Is the female 

(confluence of the lower thirds) DPH~ Sex 
Middle third: Just like heads; like the devil 

horns* .......... DF-f Hd 

Upper third: Real Negroes* DF+ Hd 

VIII. . DF+ A 

Intermediate figure, between blue and gray; 

A human skeleton SF4- Anat. 

Red-yellow; Animals, but I don't know what 

kind DF A 

Gray: Two hands DJF-f- Hd 

<*If the upper part is a skeleton, then this 
(the blue) could be a human soul and the 

four animals are tearing anil chewing it/> DFC Abstr. Orig. 
I wonder whether these are feet.* (Two 
very sharply drawn feet protrude on both 
sides near the middle line from the gray 
part below) ........... DdF-n Hd Orig.+ 

IX. Two horses'* heads (between green and 

brown) DF Ad 

Baby (doll) (red, plate on narrow edge) . DF~^ Obj. 
ujust like the human vertebral column (Rod 

in middle line) SF Anal. Orig. 

The two snakes must give in (the horses^ 

heads) DF-f- Ad 

<*I wonder whether this isnft again the ab- 
domen, the female sex organ>> (middle of 

red part) DdF~ Sex Orig. 

X. <vA real carnival WCF Carnival Orig.+ 

Just like two children's heads, or moon and 

sun* (yel!o\v middle) DCF Sun 



I)F - 



"Isn't the of ilsr female 

ex red , , , 

<*Thia he the the sex 

the red 
biota) ............. 

A . . . , . . . psp _ A 

or .... pi, Orig. 

Computation: 

29* 



w 


4 


D 


16 


Da 


7 


s 


2 


F-t- 


56 fl /o 


A 


21% 


Orig. 


36 % ~ 


Apper- 




ceptive 


D Dd 


Sequence 


Scattered 



M : I to 

more) 

F : 23 (10) 
FC; 1 
CF; 3 
C : 1 



H 1 

Hi 4 

A 4 

Ad 2 

4 

7 

2 

Obj. 1 
Blood 
Sun 

Carnival 
Abstr. : 1 



The findings in this patient were quite a surprise. She had held a respon- 
sible position for many years and finally saw a physician because she had 
gradually become obnoxiously querulous and because she had to suf- 

fer from nervous complaints. The experience type is *hat of an egocentric 
extratensive individual. The type of answers given, the numerous responses 
involving self-reference, the repeated indication of belief in the reality of the 
pictures interpreted, and the emotional coloring in the answers, all these 
findings indicate a more introversive type. Such relationships are found in 
epilepsy and in schizophrenia. Epileptics confabulate and perseverate more 
than is the case here, however, and also have more kieaesthetic answers, We 
can, therefore, be dealing only with a schizophrenic illness. The number of 
Dd, the fixation on sexual matters, the scattered sequence, the wide vari- 
ability (in quality) of responses, and the tendency toward absurd and abstract 
replies, all these speak for such a diagnosis. From the results noted above, 
one would have to say that the case is one where there is marked scattering. 
and that the case is of many years duration so that there is now a definite 
schizophrenic deterioration. But this is not actually the case. All one can 
say is that the patient avoids correct rapport with her surroundings and goes 
her own way entirely and that she falls into hypochondriacal and anxious 



periods, The father of the patient lias been schizophrenic 

for lias Into a schizophrenic state of deterioration. 

This ease u one in which the test Is to confuse a latent psychosis 

a one. A comparison of protocol %vith the examples of 

schizophrenic records given below ^ill show that the results in many eases 

of schizophrenia approach the normal result more closely than is 

the in latent schizophrenics. 



Psychoses* 

1. Schizophrenia. 

14. Dementia Simplex, 
Female, aged 38. 

I. Lower half of the middle figure: A part of 

man, like . DoF"- Hd 

II. Small black spots near the black ears: An 

animal's head .......... DdF- - Ad Orig. 

III. Human heads (the heads are usually seen! . DclF-*~ Hd 

IV. Two small heads (black spots within the* 

area) DdF Hd Orig. 

The whole: A mother's body, because two 

small heads are in it*> DclWF- Anat. Orig.- 

V. A flying animal , . . WF- 1 - A 

VI. Two spots within the black area: Small heads DdF- - Hd 

VII. Middle third: Wild animals 1 DF ; A 

Lower third: Butterflies ....... DF-*- A 

VIII. Pigs (red) . DF-t- A 

Middle of the blue squares: Small heads . . DdF - Hd Orig. 
IX. On the border of green and brown: Animal 

heads . DF^ A 

Red below, cannot be described: An 

elephant's head DF~ A Orig. 

Near the large brown branch: Pictures of 
men (is frequently seen as such, occa- 
sionally seen as moving, but not in this 
case) DdF 4 - H 



1 The wort! is distorted in the German* 



X. ftfii; Something like a 


HO3H.H) *ltlK IlO%* 




the lirailn in mil 




OF H 


Gray ubote; Dragonfly 




DF A 


* ~ y 

Gray laterally: 


i 


I)F A 




(lo in p it t .1 i i on : 






Re^pons^> S : 17. 




1 2 (i 


M : 




il 


8 


F : 17 (8~) 




IM 


5 


FC: 




Do 


2 


CF: 








C : 




F * 


53 /o 






A 


33 'o 






Grip. 


30 ; 






Apper- 








'epti\e 


D-D< 






Sequence 


Scattered 







H ; 
Hi! : 
A : 

A.I : 
Anal,: 



2 (I- 

r> i2-- 

8 S3- 

1 ( 
I < ) 



This patient is a housewife who has 

dull, Indolent and stereotyped over the course of years, 

been little variation In her Illness. She was never very 
results of the lest are quite different from what they would he In 
feeblemindedness. There Is no depression; when the 10 

the Institution she asked quite without emotion whether would 

stay there. 

15. Hebeplirenla* 
Textile merchant, aged 50, III about 20 years, 

I. On the inside of the head of the lateral 

figures: A lion's head DdF Ad 

Middle: A female body without a head, the 
breasts stand out (the woman"" s skirt Is 

made of silk muslin) DF+ Hd 

II. Black: Two bears ......... DF4 A 

Reversed: Sheep's heads ....... DF+ Ad 

Red below: Hind part of a butterfly . . DPC+ Ad 

Red above: Silk cocoon ....... DF Obj. 0r%. 

III. Negro's head with stiff collar ..... DoF+ Hd 

The middle black figures, reversed: Negroes^ 

heads which have been chopped off . . DF~~ Hd 

Red, middle: Brassiere, corset ..... DF-f Obj. 



The word is distorled in the German. 



160 



DcIWF A Orig. 



i. A In the of the 

a few are and 

the has an pouch ^ 

The whole: like a on a 

..*.... ^ F*-^ H 

The ends of the ...... DF+ A 

V. A bat ............. WF+ A 

A contour at the of the bat; 

of an which has never 

............ DdP Ad 

VI. ..... . . . . WF Obj. Orig 

end: A fish ......... DF A Orig. 

The whole Is also a crystal formation . . - p^p Obj. 

VII third; mouths ..... DF+ A 

VIIL (red) . . ...... - DF+ A 

Blue: A new fine type of butterfly . . . DF+ A 

led-yellow: A lung . . . ...... DFC Anat. 

IX, Small of colors between green 

red: Feces like those made by dwarfs 

which are sold at fairs ....... DdCF C 

Plate on narrow edge: Upper of red: 

. . ..... . . . DF+ Hd 

Between brown and green; A deer's head - DF+ Ad 

X. Green, medial: Head of a hare ..... DF+ Ad 

The thick end of the red spot: Head of a 

walras ..... ....... DdF Ad 

Blue, laterally: Scorpion ....... DF A 

Blue, middle: Head of a ery young elephant DF+ Ad 

Gray, laterally: A young kangaroo .... DF A 

Black-yellow, laterally: A young canary . . DdCF A 

Computation: 
Responses: 30. 



V 5 (!DW,lDdW) 

D 19 

Dd 5 

Do 1 

F+ 61 <Vo 

A 57 % 

Orig. 20 /o 
Apperceptive : D Dd 

Sequence Definitely scattered 



M : 

F : 26 (10) 
FC: 2 (1 ) 
CF: 2 
,C : indicated 



H 

Hd 

A 

Ad 

Obj. 

Anat. 

Stool 



1 
4 

11 (4) 
8 (3-) 
4 (3) 
1 (_) 
1 (-) 



At the this test watt lie was al tie of i 

xnanic-like excitement. He of but 

at the he the 

dative were Interrupted by in hi* 

Al! is in the of the 

scattering of sequence, clear In record, In 

here though the forms are the In in 

more evident in the previous I* 

extralensive, M arc The In a of 

schizophrenic* origin gives very few the 

gives many. Patients with n0 

depressions In a schizophrenic t M 

answers. 

16, Abnlic, Hdbcplireiioid Sfe0w : iif Few 

Male, aged 25. Illness of relatively recent while in 

a prison camp. 

I. Butterfly ............ WF-r A 

II. Fantastic butterfly ......... WF-f A 

III. Two monkeys playing 1 WM4~ A 

IV. Fantastic carpet .......... WF-f A 

V. Animal carpet WF A 

VI. The same WF A 

VII. Wild carpets ........... WF~AOrig. 

VIII. Likewise, animal carpets ....... WF A Orig. 

IX. Likewise, animal carpets ....... WF A Orig.' 

X. Sea animals, coral . WCF+ A 

Computation: 

Responses: 10. 



w 


1(1 


M : I (questionable) A : ill 
F : 8 (5-) 


F+ 


44 % 


FC: 


A 


100 % 


CF: 1 


Orig. 


30Vo 


C : 


Apper- 






ceptive 


W 




Sequence 


Single responses only 





1 German = Spielaffen. Many word in thii protocol are unusual and tend in the 
direction of neologisms. 

Rorschack. Psyehodiagnostics. H 



of quality* Coarlatcd, the coartatlon 

is empty* The W\ P's, A^s *rc all by the indifferent*, 

mocicL In of the is attentive to the ex- 

as by the of In 

as it is to the of the except 
by methods. 

17. 

40. 

Hebephrenlc for 20 years, to catatonic form with 

poorly delusions. At present, he Is In an excited hebe- 

phrenaid state with widely fluctuating delusions and few hallucinations. Prev- 
iously, there a wealth of hallucinations. 

L Two women, sportswomen two 

in the middle figure) ....... H 

Two angels, polar bear (some sub- 
jects see in these lateral figures; 
others, polar bears. He interprets both 
and contaminates them Into polar bear I DM+ H 
angels*) f DF+ A 

Or, pyramid angels (indicates the points of 

the lateral figures, as the pyramids) . . DdF Pyram. Orig. 

Or, attack angels (they throw up their arms 

as though they were in an attack) . . . DH+ H 
1L Reversed: The sunrise ........ DCF Sun 

Black: Two polar bears . DF+ A 

III Two waiters WM+ H 

IV. A bear bending down WH+ A 

In the middle part (held reversed) beneath 
the crown form, two small, dark, ring- 
shaped areas: Handcuffs, number 6^ (the 
same small detail is seen twice; as a hand- 
cuff and as the number 6, and the two DdF+ Obj. Orig.+ 
interpretations are mixed) ..... DdF+ Number Orig.+ 

Above: A small crown ........ DdF+ Obj. Orig. + 

V. A bat, or two dead Chinese (both interpreta- WF+ A 
tions given after not quite 3 seconds ex- 
posure. The bat's ears are the stiffened 
arms of the Chinese, the legs are the trail- 
ing pigtails, the wings are the crushed 
legs of the Chinese). They fell and were 
killed WM+HOrig.+ 



.- If A _ 

VI. A im- I IF * A 

This Is a of I* 11 

of the till* 

Is the figure, de- 

signated as birds* The the 

of the figure, his ii the 

figure; tmo on 

are his ....... DF* 4 - Hd 

Also > knotty at 

lower ....,.., PF~ QbJ 

From the subject to 

leather, from he to 

then suddenly finds 
the black area which lie as DdF Qr%~ 

\ II. Remains of camphor from the war. He 
means the areas of gas from gas 
The subject considers camphor as WCF 

VIII. Quite enthusiastic: ccThe resurrection of the 
colossal, coloric, red, brownish 
venous tumors of the head. A very com- 
plex contamination DWCF Abstr. Orig* 

Resurrection: Shows how the red animals 

are resurrected DM~h A 

Names colors DCC 

Coloric: Schizophrenic pleonasm; Yenous 
tumor of head; veins shdwn at different 
places DdCF Aunt. Orig. 

Other determining factors of the interpreta- 
tion cannot be obtained 

Or a market for fuchsia (whether the form 
has had any influence cannot be deter- 
mined, but the colors are sharply con- 
ceived. The association market may in- 
dicate inextricability of the forms) , . WC PL Orig. 

I must not tell who these animals are; they 
might become angry. (Probably seen as 
moving) DF+ A 



1 In German this represents a klan^ association and flight: purses to leather (Jncfateu) 
to yachts (Jachten) to sea. 



Hit 



IX. Perfect cattle-bears which occur in SF~ l A 

lakes.** Composed, as far as the deter- 

be recognized -by 
Bears (the ^reen, frequently Interpreted as 

DPt-A 

Ctttle brown points) which were 

completed by confabulating cattle for them DF A 
Lakes the green ar^asl . . . . . DC Sea 

X. Nothing but the eternal Jew in Jtidea (the 
gray heads, middle above, which are fre- 
quently Interpreted as Jewish profiles! . DF~f Hd 

Computation: 



Responses: 30- 



W 

D 
Dd 



9 (two are contamin- 
ated DW, resp. DdW) 
15 
6 (tendency to more) 



M : 7 (even more) 
F : 16 (11-4 
FC: 
CF: 4 
C : 3 



F+ 

A 

Orig. 

Apper- 
ceptive 



69 / 
30 Vo 



: ca. 



D Dd 



Sequence: Very scattered 



H 

Hd 
A 
Ad 
Plant 
Obj. 
Anat. 
Pyramid 
Sun 
Sea 
Clouds 
Number : 1 
Abstr. : 1 
Color : 1 
Numerous 
conta- 
minations 



Introversive and affective egocentricity are combined in this case. Adapt- 
ability of form to color has ceased; the capacity for affective rapport is lack- 
ing. The associations are extremely mixed up, absurd and spotty. Fantastic 
contaminations, combinations and confabulations are mixed together. There 
is great variability in the interpretations; the number of original responses 
is relatively small only because the component interpretations of the con- 
taminations have been separated. Judging the responses as individual units 
results in original percent of 90, Le. 9 complete inability to get into intellect- 
ual rapport with others. 



is, 

S3. 

Ill 25 At he i* 

mute. On of the ilw at all It 

to do the test, 

I. Anatomy (the plate is frequently 

preted as or This ia 

the for the '*'Ana* 

tomy) IT - 

Two .... H 

II. Two women . . . . . , . . WM* 4 - fl 

III. A new theatre, as our ran lift 

freely in the air> f catatonic of 

speaking) ........... H 

IV. Two animal heads bat 

seen) ............. 

Again a knitting woman sitting on the F . W3I-+ H 
V. A doggy a dog (the whole figure is not 

meant, but just the head, the 

what lies in between) DdP~ A Or% 

VI. A knitting woman (perse ve rating, but 

designates very small horn-like projec- 
tions, below medial, as the hands of the 

woman) . DdWF HOrig. 

VII. These are Manititter, something crazy; 

four heads (what Hanititter means, 

he does not say; four heads, probably hu- DF+ Hd 

man, frequently interpreted) DF+ Hd 

VIII. -Two pigs, yes, that's what I was^> . . . DF+ A 
IX. Points to the gray half moons in the middle 

of the intermediate figure, and the place 

between the contiguous green areas and 

says: She must yearn until she falls into 

eternity.s> (The intermediate figure, re- 
versed, is frequently interpreted as a 

female body. The funnel-shaped spot, 

where the green areas are contiguous, is 

the entrance to hell, or something similar. 

From the scattered talk of the patient, 

one can see that eternity& is something 

sexual for him. The same area of the fi- 



168 



gure, the Is In- 

terpreted as a sex We are 

obviously with a 

answer* The therefore, be 

incomplete . . . . . DdF Abstr. Orig. 

X. very rapidly,, after the other: 

The between the 

Eternity ........... DdF Abstr. Orig. 

The sky .......... DC Sky 

Green laterally: More lawn to turn over 

(this is rarely interpreted) . . . DdC Lawn 

Red areas: Love .......... DC Abstr. 

Two extremely white gaps within the 

heads: Father Mother (this in- 

terpretation must have determined 

by the duality only) Dd Number, Father and 

(AH interpretations belong to the same Mother Orig. 

complex.) 

Computation: 



Responses: 17, 



w 


5 (1 DdW) 


M 


4 


D 


6 


F 


9 (5-) 


Dd 


6 


FC 





S 


1 (in IX.) 


CF 









C 


3 


F+ 


45% 


Number 


1 


A 


18% 






Orig. 


about 35 % (see below) 






Apper- 








ceptive 


W D Dd 






Sequence 


Scattered 







H 
Hd 
A 
Ad 

Sky 

Lawn 
Abstr. 
Father and 
Mother 



Kinaesthesias and colors are roughly balanced indicating the ambiequal 
type of the blocked catatonic. Original responses make up far more than 
50% if one does not search for particular form interpretations among the 
schizophrenic answers but simply considers them as original. As in the last 
case, the visualization of forms is sometimes good and sometimes poor. Such 
wide differences in clarity of form visualization are seen only in schizo- 
phrenia. There are no FC or CF responses no fine shading of the affect., 
no emotional adaptability. 



-. 1C 

If. 

3d, 
of and of At onr at 



at art* 

entirely in her her 

L Two , * DM-*- H 

The is an an 

X-ray picture ........... WF 

II. Two ...... A 

Red above: Two ....... DCF 

III. Two WM~t* H 

Reversed, the 

hair ......... H Orig.-^ 

IV. A flea ..... ........ WF~AOrifr 

A small detail which be 

A bone ..... ....... DdF Orlg. 

V. Bat .............. A 

VI. A fan .... ..... . . . . Obj. Orig.-*- 

Upper part: Animal head ...... DF4- Ad 

VII. Two spinster's heads with 

(upper third) .......... DW^ Hd 

Whole plate: Pieces f cake dough WFC-f- Orig4 

VIII. Polar Bears ..... ...... A 

Intermediate figure between the blue areas: 

Skeleton ........... . SF+ Anal. 

Gray above: Squid . . ..... . . DF+ A Qrig.+ 

IX. figure: A violin ....... SF+ Obj. 

Brown: Two dwarfs with outstretched arms DB4+ H 
A small detail on the green lateral contour: 

A face ....... ..... DdF+Hd 

X. Gray middle: Fleas ......... DF A 

Green middle: Caterpillars ...... DFC+ A 

Red: Two wandering figures, without heads DH+ H 

Computation: 
Responses: 22* 

W : 6 M : 6 H : 5 

D : 12 F : 13 (4) Hd : 2 

Dd : 2 FC: 2 A : 7 

S : 2 CF: 1 Ad : 1 

C : Obj. : 2 



_ 168 

F+- : 70 /t Anal. : 3 

A : Dough: 1 

Orig. : Fire : 1 

Apper- 

ceptivc : W D 

Sequence: somewhat scattered 

On the whole the results In approach the normal findings very 

closely^ especially in experience type, affective status and in animal percent- 
age. Complex responses arc here. There are some findings indicative 
of schizophrenia, particularly the simultaneous occurrence of very good and 
bad forrns^ the F+ percentage at the lower extreme of normal averages- 
(70 Vo) when considered in relation to the 6 M responses, the variability of 
the quality of the original responses, and, finally, the two very absurd Dd 
answers. The subject draws fairly well but has neglected it for many years, 
taking it up again only as the paranoid state became stabilized. Moody, as 
changeable in mood as the weather, very stubborn (S), and negativistic. In 
her more calm periods, such as when this test was done, she appears affect- 
ively normal, very adaptable, and shows relatively good emotional approach. 

2. Manic-depressive Insanity. 

20* Depression. 
Female, aged 54. 

Patient has suffered from manic and depressive moods for many years. 
It is only in the last five years, however, that she has actually been ill with 
cyclic insanity , having manic and depressive phases in alternation. 

L Bat W+A 

II. Two heads (red) DoF+ Hd 

or two animals because of the clear legs . DF+ A 

III Two animal heads DF+ Ad 

IV. Two legs ............ DoF+Hd 

V, Bat WF+A 

VI. Bat (the wing-like figures above) .... DF A 

VII. Two heads (upper third) DF+ Hd 

VIIL Bears DF+ A 

Red-yellow: Fish heads DF+ Ad 

IX. Inner side of the brown branches, above: 

A man's head * DdF+ Hd 

Face with stocking cap . . . DoF+ Hd 

Next to it, a shoe (very small) ..... DdF+ Obj. Orig.+ 



. ItFJ 

X. The 0r fish A 

Ike ........ A 

...... DF * A 

Computation: 
16. 

W : 2 M : H : 

D : 9 P : 16 fl ) Hd : 5 

Dd : 2 A ; 8 

Do : 3 CF: Ad ; 2 

to C : 1 



; 93% 

A : 

Orig. : 7 f /if 

Apper- 

ceptive : D Do 

Sequence; rather rigid 

21. 

The same patient in manic of a 

I. Bat ...... ........ WF-fA 

Two angels flying ......... DM~r H 

II. Two carnival clowns, but they don't wear 

any top hats . . . . ...... WH+ B 

Red^ above: Two little animals, rabbits or 

squirrels ...... . ..... DF-f- A 

Black: Bears ........... DF-f A 

III. ^Animals. I don't know what kind* (upper 

half of the men) ......... DF A 

Middle: Tie ........... DF+ Ohj. 

Red, above: Clown or animal ..... DF A 

IV. Bat ......... .... WF+ A 

V. Bat .............. WF+ A 

VI. Animal, I don't know what kind . . . WF A 

VII. Upper third: Heads ......... DF+ Hd 

Middle and lower third: Its body .... DF Hd 

VIII. Pigs or bears ........ ... DF+ A 

Whole plate: Like a christmas tree . . . WCF Obj. Orig. 

Blue: The flags of the first of August 1 . . DFC+ Obj. 

Red-yellow: Head of marine animals . . . DF+ Ad 

1 Translator's Note: A Swiss national holiday* 



170 



IX. Brown; Two carnival some- 

on other ........ DM**- H 

Green: or DF A 

X, Colored stuff WC Color 

laterally: Like a crab ...... DF~4~ A 

Gray DF A 

Green: ......... DFC-f A 

Gray above: I don't know 

............ DF A 

Computation: 



W : 7 (several DW) 

D : 17 

Del, Do, etc.; 



Ff 

A 

Orig. 

Apper- 
eeptive 



59% 
64% 



W D 



Responses: 24. 






M : 3 (tendency to 


H 


3 


more) 


Hd 


2 (1 ) 


F : 17 (7) 


A 


14 (5-) 


FC: 2 


Ad 


1 


CF: 1 


Obj. 


3 


C : 1 


Color 


I 



Sequence: relatively rigid 

At the time the lest was done the manic phase was no longer at its peak. 
Usually the number of original responses, M's, and color responses is higher 
in manics. Nevertheless, it is clear that the protocol is that of a manic, 
especially when contrasted with the depressive findings. In the depressive, 
there is the painstaking care to recognize (the figure) with certainty, result- 
ing in good forms. In manics there are confabulatory responses which are 
vague and f indifferent quality, W responses confabulated from various 
parts, and poor forms. In both phases the animal percentage remains relat- 
ively high; it may be slightly reduced in elation, 

3. Epilepsy. 

22. Typical Epileptic Dementia, Eapid Course. 

Male, aged 26. 
Patient has had epileptic attacks since the age of 13. 

I. On both sides the same pretty picture, just "WC+ Color 
like my drawings; black and white. Makes 
wing-like motions with his arms and 



171 

**Gad the 

.......... * II 

!L H i^Sr 

Two 

as lie cor* 

to the Afl 1 

on Do to 

>.......... a H 

1IL Three on the 

red- The la a 

.......... WC 

ccTlie as a 

Two 

......... DM- H 

IV. Tw0 colors, now 

on The is WC 

a person, but it it 

well; a ....... WM-*- H 

Such borders on 

the wall* ........... Qrig.4- 

V. Two colors, things WC Color 

the bat's head, his 

air and says: A out- 

stretched arm8 ......... DM Hi Grig. 

VI. The colors are always the same,v> The up- WC Color 
* per end: A plant with Ieaves .... DF PL 

The large part (therefore) a flower pot . DF Obj. Orig 
VII. Blaek and gray, light black. On both 

again the same Imprint ....... WC Color 

Reverses the plate. Middle part: A human 
head, here the eye; bet the neck and head 
are not just right* (Tries his own move- 
ments, turns and twists.) The body is 
shrunken and here are the legs.* (The 
projection In the erect picture frequently 
Interpreted as a high hairdress) ... DM S Orig.- 
As though water were In a container* (plate 

erect, Intermediate figure) ..... SF Obj. Orig. 

And now I want to add that all these draw- 
ings are made on paper. 

VIII. Four colors again: Light red and dark red; 
light blue and dark blue; shall I Indicate 



too? Thoroughness Is In 

life-N ............. WC C0ior 

Red: Likc a of It 

isn't the right color. '.> all 

he are 

red*) on sldes . . DP- 4 A 

On bo tli the nice imprint* (gets 
a position maneuvers with Ms 
says): I wonder whe- 
ther isn't something bad, like a 
with an erect organ, but it would be 
too larger DM H Orig. 

Bine; ThIs could be a sea DC Sea 

Gray: that is a mountain* .... DFC+ Mountain 

IX. Hcrc arc only three colors* (enumerates WC Colors 
them), eft is not the same nice print, but 
otherwise it is rather nice.* 

Brown: As though the boogyman was stand- 
ing therc . DM+ H 

Red, diagonal: A human face; here is an 

eye* DF+Hd 

X. Counts the colors, I must say, first, that "WC Colors 
the paper is white. On both sides the 
same eyen imprint. It isn't a human fi- 
gure. 

Red; A mountain, as though it were beauti- 
ful in the sunset^ DCF Mountain 

elf this is a mountain, then that is a sea 
with many indentations in the shore and 
streams flowing in DCF Sea Orig. 

Plate reversed, green middle: As though 
a rabbit were standing there, but the eye 
is too large and the color is not correct DF+ A 

Computation: 

Responses: 29, of which 10 are color enumerations. 

W : 13 (10 color- M : 8 (4) H 7 (3) 

enumerations) F : 7 (3^ ) Hd 2 (1) 

D : 15 FC: 1 A 2 

S : 1 CF: 2 Ad 

C : 11 (lOenumera- Plant 1 ( ) 

F+ : 57 Vo turns) Obj. 2 ( ) 



A : 7 '0 <H: 31 ft i. : i 

6r%. : 27 ft o" the Sea ; 2 

: 2 

Apper- : li 
reptlvc : DV--D 
Sequence: 

Fantasy arc in the in the 

is carefully the arc 

leptic careful to The are 

significant. The of the to to 

tilings to hinnelf is is very 

rolors become the is in this 

rather than the animal pattern, a 

type, a rare finding, and even it is 

23. 

29. 

Hospital attendant. As a child he had Rather 

but his condition had never aroused a of as t 

He had an isolated epileptic attack when frightened by a 

I. Bat WF+A 

Middle: Vertebra of a man ...... DP- Anat. 

II. Black: Lobes of longs ........ DF Anat 

I don't like the red .DC Cokr 

III. The red must mean something, probably 

the heart ........... DFC Aut. 

Two men (not seen as moving) DF+ H 

Yes, the red is located near where the 

heart should be. 

IV. Middle line: Vertebrae (especially the co- 

lumn-like part) DF Anal, 

A peculiar picture, black, gray* .... WC Color 

V. A part of the hinder parts, bony structure WF Anat. 

Bat W+A 

VI. A snake-like animal, because of the bead . DWF A 
VII. Lower confluent third: Again, the hinder 

parts of a human being ...*... DF Anfct. 

VIII. Animal, ice animals DF+ A 

Blue: Ice DCF Ice 

Middle line in tbe gray: Vertebrae .... DF Anat. 



IX. Greco; 0r liver ........ I)F Anat. 

The half-moons in the figure: 

............ DclF Anat, 

X Brown In the The . . D Position (?) Anal* 

Yellow, ...... DCF Anat. 

led: the ...... DCF- Anat, 

Computation: 



V 


5 (1 C, 1 


DW) 


D 


14 




Dd 


1 




F+ 


31 % (!) 




A 


20% Anat.: 60 


Orig. 


45 e /o- 




Apper- 






ceptive 


W D 




Sequence 


loose 





Responses 

M 

F 

PC 

CF 

C 

Position 



20. 



13 (9) 
tendency present 

4 

2 
? ? 1 



H 


1 


Hd 





A 


4 (1) 


Ad 





Anat. 


12 (-) 


Ice 


1 


Color 


2 



The findings in this case are probably sufficient to make the diagnosis of 
epilepsy. There are color responses, a tendency to confabulate, indication of 
the tendency to attribute values to the figures, and perseveration. The animal 
percentage is small because the stereotypy has found another object, namely, 
anatomical responses. The findings are not audacious enough to be those of 
a confabulating feebleminded subject, and are not scattered enough to be 
those of a schizophrenic subject, especially since there are so many color 
responses. Comparative material is as yet too small to allow definite con- 
clusions but the same preference for anatomical responses was found in 
several epileptoid cases. 

4. Organic Psychoses. 

24. Arteriosclerotie Dementia with Depression. 

Female, aged 69. 

I. Middle below: A fish head DoF+ Ad 

Laterally above: Bears' heads ..... DF~f~ Ad 

II. He wears old shoes. Patient only sees the 

shoes, and not the entire man. 

The shoes: red above ....... DF Obj. 

III. <cHuman beings, if the back were not 

separated DF+ H 



IV. The of the 

The reversed: Two , . 

V. A bird ............. 

VI. The A ...... 

The , . 

VII. Middle Dogs' ...... 

Upper part: Swans ......... 

VIII. Two ..*........ 

Gray; Two . . , 

Red-yellow: ...... 

IX. Green: ....,..,,,. 

Brown: of the ex- 

tension) .,**.* 
X. Gray laterally: (fre- 

quently interpreted as . . . 

Green medial: Fish ......... 

Computation; 
18, 



!>r V 
DF \d 

IT A 

DF* A 

DF Ati 
DP- Ad 
DP A 
DF- \ 
DF-Hd 
DF -Hi 
DF^t A 

DF -A 

DF- A 
A 



w 
D 


i {u w; 

16 (numerous Do) 


Do 


1 


F+ 


66% 


A 


77% 


Orig. 


10% 


Apper- 




ceptive 


D Do 


Sequence 


indication of reversal 



M : 

F ; 
FC: 
CF: 
C : 




18 (6) 







H : 1 

Hd : 2 () 
A : 9 (3-! 
Ad : 5 
Obj.: 1 ( ) 



25. Korsakoff Psychosis. 
Male, aged 60. 

Patient was formerly a very intelligent person* a teacher. Alcoholism became 

worse and worse, culminating in alcoholic delirium in 1909, since which 

time he has been in a Korsakoff psychosis. 

I. Middle; A frightened woman DM+ H 

Plate reversed, the mushroom-like figure, 
laterally: A queen watching from a dis* 
tance what her husband is doing in war DdM + H 



_ 176 

II. Two pigs .......... DP A 

Two . . . . DP~r Ad 

Whole plate: Two marionettes . . WM-f H 

III, Two clowns H 

Medial round figures: . DF~*- A 

of the tneo: A flying fish * . . DF-f A 

Reel above: Two parrots ....... DF 4 - A 

IV, A with enormous fret is sitting there WM+ H 
Plate 0n narrow edge: with open 

mouths ............ DF-f- Ad 

Head of the giant: A opens its mouth DdF+ Ad Ortg.+ 

Lateral extension: Smoke DF-^ A 

Plate reversed, lowest Intermediate figure, 
between the leg of the giant and column- 
like middle part: A polar hear .... SF~t~ A Gr%,4- 

The Intermediate figure above that: A pray- 
ing maiden SM~f H Orig.+ 

The media! contour of this praying maiden: 

A man studying his Interest (money) . . DdM+ H Orig.+ 

The whole plate is a giant. Have I said 

that already?* 

V. Doesnfi see the bat and otherwise does not 
pay any attention or use the symmetry of 
the plates* Places plate on narrow edge: 
One-half of the bat: An arrogant woman 
(extension klnaesthesia) DM4~ H Orig.+ 

Plaees It on other narrow edge and points 
at the other half of the bat without 
noticing the symmetry; A cautious bent- 
over woman* DM+ H Orlg.+ 

VI. The most lateral extension, plate on narrow 

edge: A funny bear, struggling to rise . DM-*~ A Orig.+ 

Upper part: Bismarck's profile with the 
three hairs on the head (the two horn- 
like structures) DF Hd Orig. 

Plate upright, the small figures on the left 
and right, above lateral: A quiet observer 

with folded arms DdM-f- H Orig.+ 

VIL Middle part: A sleeping knight ..... DF+ Hd 

The same face on the other side: A laughing 

old man DF+ Hd 

Plate reversed, upper parts: A tiger's mouth DF-f- Ad 



OF Hii 
DF* A 
I)F- 

SF ~ A - 



Mil. on nl^t*i: A 

a ... 

Red: Two solves ...,.,,.,, 

Red-yellow: ........ 

The 

Two up . . . . . 

reversed; 

liar: Two 
.......... 

Gray: Two at 

tail on ........ 

IX. Two tourists, on a 

a telescope in their ...... 

Green, (plate on nirrow A 

woman waving farewell ...... 

Red: Plate on nanow 

a pipe in his mouth ........ 

Brown (narrow edge): A clown . . 

Brown diagonal, next to the 

brown extension: A woman 

there looking at the sea, (A very clearly 
Yisualized picture. The woman 00 

the tree and the middle line forms the 
horizon) ............ 

X. Gray, laterally: Two storks ...... DF+ A 

Gray, above: Rabbits DF A 

Green, middle: Two weasels I>F A 

Computation : 
Responses: 38. 



SM H On,*. - 

11 
DM-* B Grift. 4* 

m - 






w 


3 


D 


25 


Del 


6 


S 


4 


F-*. 


66% 


A 


47 Vo 


Orig. 
Apper- 
ceptive 
Sequence 


53/o 

1) (Dd) 
loose 



M : 14 (almost all good) 
F : 24 (8) 
FC: 
CF: 
C : 



H 
Hd 
A 
Ad 



: 14 (2) 
; 5 (2) 
: 14 (5-) 

: 4 



Picture: 1 



Rorschach, Psychodi a gnostics. 



12 



"""* I I O I 

Scweral the the twice In the course 

of the in both eases. 

different. He his of 

the of the Korsakoff 

of this, the flow of is as It is in who, 

after a while, are to has already 

in figure. Freedom of in schizophrenics to dissolu- 

tion of is in of the memory 

defect. 

Color has no influence in the interpretations. The findings in this 

greatly those in but differ in there is less 

of the tendency to associative leaps, in that there are no absurd 

interpretations, in that the affective attitude toward interpreting is 

more monotonous. Interpreting is pleasant for the subject Just as it is for 
the normal imaginative person. 

There is one peculiarity that the subject shares with many paranoid 
patients, namely, the kinaesthetic vivification of very small parts of the 
figures. 

26. Progressive Paralysis. 
Male, aged 45. 

Exalted form. Prodromal symptoms for two years and paretic exaltation 

for the last six months, 

I. An angel and two Santa Clauses .... WH+ H 

II. Two drunkards . . . . WM+ H 

HI. That's you and Captain Moser ..... WM+ H 

IV. A flying falcon WF A 

V. Also winged animals ........ WF A 

VI. A mountain butterfly WF A Orig 

VII. Snow and clouds WCF Clouds 

VIIL Red-yellow, below: Hell ....... DC Hell Orig. 

Gray above: A crown ........ DF Obj. Orig. 

IX. Intermediate figure: Entrance to a pit . . SCF Pit Orig. 

Brown above: The sun ........ DC Sun Orig.' 

Green: Forest DC Forest Orig. 

X. The entrance to heaven, clouds .... WCF Sky Orig. 

Computation: 
Responses: 13. 

W : 8 (numerous DW) M : 3 H : 3 

D : 4 ' F : 4 (all) Hd : 



s . i FI;, o \ , i 

F : 'Tin* M"s <;F: 3 VI * 
tlir F- dH f! : 1 Obj. 1 
\ : 23 ^ Or her*: 6 
Orifi. : 33 n o 
A p per- 
cept it P : 1 - I) 
Sequence; f?! 

It Is in the M\ arr the FV 

in contract. very The of 

with *ucece<linK plate, while 

Ws become DWs, the apperceptive in 

respects. This was very 

27, 

Male, 78, 

Patient has shown definite for the 

I. Two horses" heads (the . . . . . DF- - Ail Grip.- - 

IL A plant figure , . . . . DWF PL Orig. 

III. Something like a flower WF PL * 

IV. The ends of the boots: . . . . . DF A Orig. 
Reversed: Also animals ....... DWF-- A 

V. A bird (however, he demonstrates some- 
thing quite impossible) . BWP A 

VI. A leaf WF-*- PL 

VII. Flowers . DWF Pl.Orig.-- 
VIII. A sunshade (parasol), indicating the red 

animals., held diagonally DPC Qbj. Orip-"~ 

Gray above: Also a sunshade ..... DF Obj. Orig. 

Blue: Another sunshade ....... DF Obj. Orig, 

IX. Flowtrs, roses DWCF4- PL 

X. A rose (the whole!) . ........ DWCF PL Orig. 

C o in p u I a t i o n ; 

Responses: 13. 

W : 8 (probably all DW) M : H : 

D : 5 F : 10 (9} Hd : 

FC: 1 A : 3 ( ) 

F+ : 10% CF: 2 At! : 1 (--} 

A : 31 % (see below) C: Plant:6(--) 



180 



Grig. : 70% 

Apper- 

ceptive : DW~ -D 

Sequence: apparently loose 



Obj. : 3 ( , 



In this rase the test was given in parts over a period of several days in 
order to interfere with perseveration which would extend through the whole 
of plates. For this reason, the A% does not have the same significance 
in as in the previous ones. If the whole test had been given in one 

day the patient would, probably, have nothing but ^horses' heads or 

<csnnsiiacie8 % or perhaps nothing but plants and flowers. He always returned 
to plants in his responses; another patient with senile dementia in my ma- 
terial shows the same reaction. It is perhaps interesting to note in this con- 
nection that children of six to eight years also appear to prefer plants in 
their interpretations. Confabulation is very clear. The intelligence type re- 
mains more like that which prevailed when the patient was normal for a 
longer period in patients with senile dementia than in patients with paresis. 

28. Encephalitis Lethmrgien. 
Female, aged 32, 

These results were obtained in the first weeks of the illness during one of 
the short periods in which patient was awake. The test was done with a 
parallel series of plates so that the computations only can be recorded here. 



Responses: 19. 



M : 
F : 
FC; 
CF: 
C : 



3 
14 (3-) 

2 (-) 
indicated 





H 

Hd 

A 

Ad 

Plant 

Obj. 

Picture 



W : 11 (part confabulatory. 

part combinatory, 

some primary Ws) 
8 

F+ 73% (with inclusion 

of FC 68%) 

A 53 % 

Orig. 10 % 
Apper- 

ceptive W D 

Sequence loosened 

The experience type is apparently normal. 

The intelligence type, showing several confabulatory W responses, gives 
a strong impression of fatigue in the subject; the forms also suggest this. The 
forms are probably much clearer when the patient is well. 



VJ. SUMMARY. 



I. The Form Test * In tfir of la- 

by the The of 

computation the of fen IB la 

Interpretation of the differs in 

some, not all, 0! the In casrs the i* to 

that fact that the perception Is carried out or Ie$ 

of the process of of recent Thin 

Is not a general but an Individual difference; It 5s not an dif- 

ference, but one which shows differentiation. 

IL The problems of the experiment primarily with the 

(pattern) of the perceptive process. The of the 

lions comes into consideration only secondarily. The clarity of 
visualization, the relationships between kiiiaesthctic color factors, 

the manlier in which the plates are apperceived, whether as wholes or 
as parts, and also a number of other factors which may be 
from the protocol of the experiment; all show typical 

which are characteristic of the various categories of normal individual* 
and of the psychoses. 

III. The experiment leaves room for completion by further work with stan- 
dardized parallel series of plates and appropriate control experiments. 

IV, Results of the experiment: 

Certain optimal relationships of the factors of the test express cer- 
tain components of intelligence^ of subjects. In particular, the establish- 
ment of the mode of apperception of the plates allows the setting up of 
apperceptive types and intelligence types (abstract, theoretical, ima- 
ginative, grumbling, pedantic, etc.). 

The relationship between movement and color factors represents the 
relation between introversion, the faculty of doing inner work, and 
extratension, the faculty of turning to the outer world, in the subject. 
This relationship expresses a condition in the subject, or the form of a 
psychosis when one is present. This relationship may be formulated in 
terms of the experience type *>. The following types may be distinguished: 



182 

1. Introversive Experience Type; Predominance of kJnae^thetic respon- 
ses. (Example: Imaginative subjects.) 

2. Extratensive Experience Type; Predominance of color responses, 

I Example: Practical subjects.) 

3. Coartated (narrowed I Experience Type: Marked submergence of 
movement color factors to the extent that the subject reacts with 
form responses exclusively. (Examples: Pedants, subjects in depressive 

mood or actually psycliotically depressed., subjects with dementia 
simplex,) 

4. Ambiequal Experience Type; Many klaaesthetle ant! equally many 
color responses. (Examples: Talented individuals, compulsion neuro- 
tics, manics., catatonics.) 

The results frequently suppression of either introversive or 

exlratensive factors* or both. 

Color responses represent lability of affect. The more color responses 
predominate over kinaesthetic responses the more unstable the affect- 
ivity of the subject; the more predominant the kinaesthetic responses, 
the more stable the affectivity. Neurotic subjects suffer color shock ^ 
on encountering the colored plates* (This is evidence of emotional sup- 
pression.) 

There Is a correlation between the experience type and certain 
groups of functions ancl phenomena; certain definite experience types 
are correlated with certain definite components of intelligence, with 
definite situations of affective dynamics* also with definite types of 
character, with definite perceptive and, apparently, imagery types, with 
certain potentialities for the development of talents, with the sense 
hallucinated, and finally, with the form of neurosis or psychosis present 
in the subject. (Problem of the determinants of neuroses and psychoses.) 

The experience type has an habitual status. It is narrowed by depres- 
sive moods, dilated by the lighter moods. Fatigue and similar factors 
influence the experience type. In the course of the life of an individual 
it undergoes a number of shifts which are probably characteristic of all 
subjects. Variations in the experience type affect all the groups of 
functions and phenomena mentioned above; this is simply an expression 
of the correlations noted between experience type and the functions. 
Studies of the variations of the experience type include researches into 
variation at different times and under various conditions. Comparative 
studies of experience type include researches into the types in men ami 
women and the development of the type in these groups, into com- 
parisons of types in the same and different families, and finally com- 
parison of types in different peoples and races. Such studies must include 
tfie study of variations and similarities of certain components of intelli- 
gence, personality, talents and imagery types as a part of the research. 



The experience If pi* iiidic.itv form nr pattern, n^l ^ntfaL it re- 
pre*entH trt af! m>? j*2si*n il*^lf f'^nlfrii 

jrtitin are hy in^linrt b\ lii^fiplinril 

fifd fi*irr%* |}i** \p**rit'n<*r l>}^. Us** ?* J 

i,s in ni> *>ppo**I hy iii^ra|il:iii*il thinkiia^, 

The tf^t has pro\*d to lu nf iiljirtii>*tif %dliir In it |?i>* 

siblr differential diagnosis of personality: In patient* . of 

Illness, Furthermore^ It an 

independent of previous knowledge* |irartire<, of 

education. Il Ii by of the t***4 to 

ferning affVfti*ve relationships. The 

of the ia the 



The of the Test* 

By 
H. Rorschach, M. D., 

farnterly Assistant t HerUau Cantonal Asylum. 

Published posthumously 

by 

Emil Oberholzer, M. D. (Zurich). 

Reprinted by permission of the publisher, Julius Springer, from the 
Zeitschrift fur die gesamte Neurologic and Pychiatrie, Vol. 82, 1923 

Introduction* 

In 1921., In Volume II of the Arbeiten zur angewandlen Psychiatric - 
(Publisher: E. Bircher, now Hans Huber, Bern), Hermann Rorschach published 
the methods and results of diagnostic experiment based on perception, con- 
sisting in the interpretation of accidental forms. The work was published 
under the title Psychodiagnostics. He continued his work in the devel- 
opment of the experiment with untiring diligence following the publication, 
and rapidly acquired a great deal of experience with the test. This experience, 
combined with the acute psychological insight and scientific talent with 
which Rorschach was endowed, made it possible for him to bring the inter- 
pretation of the results to a remarkably, almost dizzily, high state of refine- 
ment. This fruitful work was interrupted by Rorschach's sudden death on 
April 2 n <*, 1922. He was in the midst of his promising elaboration of the 
numerous problems raised by the experiment. His work approached that of 
a genius, and heralded a new phase in the study of psychology. The bulk of 
his experience and conclusions went with him to his unfortunately early 
grave. 

The manuscript presented here is based on one prepared by Rorschach a 
few weeks before his death for presentation to the Swiss Psychoanalytical 
Society. He had discussed the relationship between psychoanalysis and the 
test briefly in the Psychodiagnostics, but in this paper he demonstrated the 



fM*l till* tWO 

are to a* to th* 

test. arc in the for fnnrlii^ioiii, 

The of in In nij fririifl^ 

as in a at the of 1922 He il 

In 10 include certain t!ie 

nature of which in unknown to roe 1 tio 

ider the of t* for 

withholding publication of we 

opportunity to the of the in 

detail ancl on a case, an lit* <lld not lit tint* 

where he to to a 

small number of summary examples, the of tlir 

a duty. The offer to 

others to pursue research the lines Ror$chach indicated. Furthermore, 

two new concepts not discussed in the are In 

paper, namely, ^vulgar responses**. ?nd ehiaroscuio 

serves to illustrate many categories of 

responses. 

I have made only sucli changes as were absolutely necessary, 1 have not 
attempted to smooth out the style of the for fear of interfering 

with the vividness of It, and have limited myself to 

which were obscure or difficult to understand. Dr. Rorschach wrote nut the 
manuscript at a time when he was extremely taxed with from tl! 

sides and when questions were raining on Mm from til quarters. 

On the other hand, I have, in the first part of the work, a number 

of explanatory sections, in order to make certain concepts In 
accessible to any who have not read the Psychodiagnostics, These are general- 
ly in footnotes. In the third part, where the relationships between the analy- 
sis and the test results are dealt with, I have added a number of supplement- 
ary remarks on the analysis and the case history. These been incorpo- 
rated in the text in order to avoid footnotes which would disturb easy read- 
ing, I was unable to do more than this without adding the whole of the 
analytic notes and the history of the illness. Nor was it possible to overcome 
the difficulty imposed in that the manuscript presupposes both a knowledge 
of the results of the experiment and the basic principles of psychoanalysis. 
\s has been noted above, it was also impossible to give enough data on the 
case to prove the correctness of the psychogram in its entirety, I must, there- 
fore, content myself with the statement that I have nothing to add to the 
blind diagnosis made by Rorschach, and that I could not have given a 
better characterization of the patient than is supplied by the psychogratn, 
though I had him under analysis for months. This psychograin is a testimony 
of the intricate and complicated trains of thought Rorsehach was pursuing in 



proves the rfti! of Interpretation of 

he out after the of the Psycho- 

Okerholzcr. 

Gentlemen : 

Two 1 my first report to you on the form-Interpretation 

lest The has a in time. The Plates 

the of the but there has been 

In the of results, in the evaluation of the 

of the factors, in the manner of interpretation. 

There however, little In the development of the theory of 

the experiment. 

T0day I to one In order to illustrate the computa- 

of the factors, the Interpretation of the results and the method of mak- 
ing a I like to acquaint you with a new angle of the 
test which come to have great importance In psychoanalysis. 

1. The Protocol of the Experiment, 

(Formulation of the Interpretations aad Computation.) 

The f olid wing record was sent to me by my friend, . Oberholzer, for blindk diagnosis. 
Only the age and sex of the patient was indicated on the record. The subject was a man of 
forty. He gave the following Interpretations for the leu plates, 

PILATE L 

1. A bt. Formula for this interpretation Is WF + AV. W indicates that the plate 

was appcrccived *s a whole. This apperceptive mode stands in contrast to D, Dd, S, and 

Do, all of which, with the exception of D will be encountered below. 

D (detail) indicates that only a part of the plate was used in the interpretation, part- 
icularly one of those parts which, because of the configuration of the picture, attracts the 
eye moat easily, or, because of its position on the plate, is most easily apperceived. These 
parts are, at the same time, the most common detail responses statistically. 

Dd (small detail) indicates that the part interpreted is not one of those usually inter- 
preted, i. e., is unusual and uncommon. 

S (space figure) is the symbol for interpretations in which the black parts of the 
figures are neglected in favor of the white spaces they outline *. 

F indicates that the form of the blot alone determined the response and tnat neither 
kinaestlietic nor color factors are influential. The plus sign indicates that the form was 
clearly visualized, even though this conclusion does not agree uith my subjective estimation. 
The quality of form perception does not depend on subjective estimation, but on statistical 
frequency of responses. Plate I is frequently interpreted as :<bat by intelligent normals 
as well as unintelligent subjects. In fact, 4bat is one of the ^vulgar responses, i. e., it be- 
longs to a group of interpretations which are given by one in every three normal subjects. 
I have designated such responses by the symbol V. 

1 Do (oligophrenic small detail) indicates, according to Rorschach. those interpretations 
in which only parts of human figures are given where other subjects give complete figures 

which are clearly visualized. (See j>, 39). 



_ 1QT 

""-""'" i O I < - 

Finally, A I animal I indicates that the responit was an 

2. The second interpretation was, *bony structure s The *mbjeet ref erred to the 

half of the middle part of plate. Thu is an apperception of a a 

response, but the form is poorly visualized. The formula 2*1 DF Anatomy. 

3 A skeleton In a light wrapping >. DP- Anatomy. This W 

as a clearly visualized form because the middle part which is here as a 

figure is frequently interpreted as a human figure. It is possible that kinaesthetic 

factors. Influence tins response but we cannot be sure. Equally uncertain Is the influence of 
ssjhadlltig in the <> wrapping 5 response. In such eases, wfaerc It a question whether 

we deal with a simple form interpretation or with a combination of factors we are forced 
to give the response the symbol F temporarily, correcting it later if necessary after com- 
paring it with all the other responses. 

4. The plate is again interpreted as a whole: *A flying creature >. The bat the 

draped skeleton are combined to form a new interpretation. If there were kinaesthetic 
factors in play at all the> were certainly of secondary importance. The formula is "WF -*~ H. 
H indicates that a human figure was interpreted. 

PLATE II. 

1. Two ClowiiS'>: WM + HV. This ist a movement response whether the subject says 

anything about the clowns being in motion or not. Comparative studies on a large material 
have shown that a kmaesthetic factor is necessary in this interpretation, 2 . 

2. And yet it may also be a wide parkway (Space form) lined by beautiful dark tree* 
(black), and it loses itself in the distance in a fence (middle black I; it is all quite in per- 
spective.* This interpretation is determined not only by form but by shading as well. Black 
and white are given value as colors. Such color responses are not equivalent to genuine 
color interpretations and must be evaluated differently, as chiaroscuro responses. This will 
be discussed below. These responses have one general characteristic peculiar to the group, 
namely, that they emphasize space and perspective, though this emphasis may not be 
actually stated. I designate such responses by putting the color symbol, C, in brackets. This 
answer also approaches the original interpretations, those which appear but once in about 
a hundred normal tests. The formula for the response is, then, SF(C) H- Landscape. 

3. And here it is red; it is a well of fire which gives off smoke. The smoke billows 
up to the top where the flames break out agaln. This, too, is a W response, determined 
in the first Instance by the color and secondarily by the form. The formula is, therefore, 
WCF <fire and smoke v (0 = Original Response). 

PLATE III. 

1. Two dandies who bow and greet each other according to the prescribed forms of 
etiquette. They are in dress clothes and carry their top hats in their hancis. I designate 

1 German: Knochengeriist. 

2 Rorschach defines kmaesthetic responses in the Psychodiagiiostics as follows: Km- 
aesthetic responses are those interpretations which are determined by form perceptions 
plus kmaesthetic factors. The subject imagines the object interpreted to be in motion . . . 
The following may be taken as a rule: Responses may be considered as movement deter- 
mined only when human figures are seen. But even then the answers are not always MV 
The question always is. does the movement indicated play a primary role in the determina- 
tion of the response? Is it really a feeling of movement and not merely the apperception 
of a form which is only secondarily interpreted as being in motion? Kinaesthetic responses 
may be. as in the case of the forms, subdivided into well and poorly visualized MV Those 
which do not correspond well to the form of the figures are considered M . (See pages 
25, 26.) 



188 

thi a* a whole reftpuuse the red parts are not taken into consideration. The 

are the- essential of Ac plate* The formula is: WM f HV f . 

2. It Is a* red in the middle were i power separating the two sides, 

preventing from meeting.* This interpretation can hardly be designated other than 

P? Abstraction A. 
IV. 

1. A column of smoke which shoots wp through the middle, divides, and is diffused 

at the top, 1 ) VFfC) + smoke (X This formula i given beeause color 0r rather white-black 
(chiaroscuro) form together determine the interpretation. 

2. It fee two hum in bodies in a bent-over position with their legs hanging 
down (the make-like literal extensions); there is the feetd (the black area just above the 

whieh the insertion of the later*! extension), the fare is turned tip (the hump 

defcribed), the arms (the thm line at the side which, with the lateral extensions, 

encloses a white space). *> This is a D interpretation, nearly a Dd. It is a genuine kinaesthetic 
and, in addition, an original answer. The formula is DM -f HO, 

3. On the whole it gives me the impression of something powerful in the middle to 
which everything else clin^s* This interpretation, again, cannot be put into a formula. 

At the the patient repeated his first impression: A typical smoke formation; I 

don't sec anything dfse.^ ^^ 

V. 

1. It is a aynunetrical body in a position as though it were flying. It has two feelers." 

It appears that ise means a flying animal so that the formula becomes "WF -t- A. 

2. **At the side here Acre is the lower part of a human body; there are legs, one is 
t wooden leg (lateral extensions). DF -i- Hd. 

PLATE VI. 

1. It is a symmetrical figure with a mid-line axis which is accentuated. Everything 
is remarkably arranged around the axis. > This is, again, an Interpretation which cannot be 
formulated. Il belongs in the category of descriptive responses. 

2. The pelt of a wild animal. Tlse tracing of the backbone is particularly marked. A 
\algar response: WF + AV. 

3. I don't se anything else. Yet this white line in the middle is interesting; it is a 
line of force around which everything else is arranged.* This, again, is a half descriptive, 
half abstract response, one of those interpretations which does not allow classification. 
Snch are rather uncommon. In the interpretation of the findings they will be discussed in 
detail. 

4. vcThe whole thing is an insect spread out, quite flattened out. Formula: WF 4- A. 
PLATE VIL 

1. TMs is a typical pelvis again (the confluent parts): DF Anatomy. 

2. The center part (confluent part as before) from which rises thick clouds of smoke. 
The smoke takes on forms*: WF(C) + smoke. 

3. These are distorted faces; they are like rodents. Formula: DF + AdV. 

1 This is not only a common or <xvulgar response but is, at the same time, a kin- 
aeahetlc one. I refer to Rorschach who says in the Psychodiagnostic on page 25: P!ate 
III is important for this consideration. It is usually interpreted as two waiters carrying 
a champagne bucket or some similar answer is given. In this interpretation the black 
fish-shaped forms below and laterally are thought of as the legs of the waiters, and the 
legs are, as may be $een, separated from the body. Primary kinaestbetic factors are very 
probably necessary to make the abstraction represented by overlooking this separation. 
Sufh answers are, then, to be considered as kinaesthetically determined. 



- 189 

4. uAnd here *tre t*o more of them* (opper tbird). Formula: OF *- HcL H> is 

here because these parts are usually interpreted as human faces or distorted faces, 

PLATE VIII. 

There was no response for quite a while. There is a lark of associations which 
when the colored plates are presented. I designate this reaction as color-shock. The 

then proceeded: 

1. It is again in the category of animals (lateral figures), a sort of bear or d0g, with 
a well developed body and short legs; the tail hangs down into the lower part of the 
figure.* Formula: DF + AV. 

2. Another typical vertebra, like a spinal colnmn: DF 4* anatomy. 
He studies the plate a while, then says he sees nothing more, 

PLATE IX, 

There was a long pause as before; it was even longer on this plate. The subject shook 
Ms head and said: 

1. <vAt best all one can say is two animal heads with turned up snouts.^ (In the green 
where it is confluent with the brown,) Formula: DF 4~ Ad. 

2. The rest ist just a figure *you can't do much with.5> 

3. Thi8 is just like the Norwegian coast (Abdomen of the dwarf-like brown figure), it 
lies just like that and is heavily shaded; that would be the mountains. Here (outer part of 
the brown) is Sweden which is less mountainous.* Formula: DdF(C) 4- geography 0, This 
is a small detail apperception the brown figure is usually interpreted as i whole. 

4* ^There is that projection in the middle part, like a fountains DF 4- fountain. 
The subject again explains, I don't know, nothing much comes to nte, expressing 
the associative inhibition due to color-shock. 

PLATE X. 

Here again some hesitation. 

1. From a distance it looks like a collection of tinted beetles.^ Formula: WF 4- A. 
This is one of those interpretations where it is difficult to decide whether it was primarily 
the form, particularly the distribution of forms, which was the primary determinant of the 
response, or whether the color was primary and the form secondary. In such cases it is 
wise to remember that rigid classification is not possible, and that even with great ex- 
perience and careful consideration subjective conclusions based on analogy cannot be 
entirely avoided. It is quite possible that color has no influence at all in this interpretation 
and that it would have been the same had the plate been black instead of colored. 

2. These are polyps but they are blue* (blue lateral). Formula: DF 4- A. 

3. ocHere we have something like newts (gray lateral). Formula: DF 4- A. 

4. These things standing up are two little animals with their feelers. They are stand- 
ing on their hind legs* (gray above). Formula: DF 4" A. 

5. The whole thing is like a path in a park and the dark parts are the trees (dark 
gray above). There is a path in the middle; it runs off a long, long way. Formula: 
SF(C) 4- landscape O. 

6. It is like a bay of an ocean (white between the red, the lower half). Interpretation 
of intermediate figure. Like the previous responses of this kind, it takes into consideration 
the borders. Formula: SF geography. 

7. ... the waves break on this steep coast* (red). Formula: DF(C)4- geography. 

8. The dark part in this blue star-shaped figure is a little man who holds onto the 
red here. He is taking a step. Formula: DdM 4- HO. Clearly a movement response and 
also a small detail interpretation using only a part of the blue radial figure. This figure is 
usually interpreted as a whole (see the second response this subject gave for this plate). 



ffji't _ 

9, u,. behind there iU a squirrel trjmg to follow; il is bitting upright on these 

branches (squirrel lighter of the blue figure; branches horizontal extension** below*. 

Formula: DilF-hAO. 

Id. <t And this Is like a distorted face (green IieSow); two long plaits hang down from 
it. . Formula: DF Hd. 

11. v<Tliese two yellow are Mke harking flogs, two terriers standing guard as if 

someone wished 10 come into a house- -they would come through this passage (white be- 
tween the lower green I the will bark at them*' Formula: DF *- A. 

The following is a tsummary of the formulae without further comment. 

I. WF f AV DF anat DF 4- Anal, WF 4- H 

II, WM 4- HV 4- land- WCF fire and 

scape smoke 

III. VM -I- HV 

IV. 4- DM + HO 
V. W 4- A DF 4- Hd 

VI. WF 4- AV WF 4- A 

VII, DF~ anat. WF(C) 4- smoke DF 4- AdV DF 4- HdV 

111, DF 4- AV DF -r- anat. 

IX. DF + Ad DdF(C) 4- gee- DP 4- fountain 

graphy 

X, 4- A DF 4- A DF- A DF 4- A 

SF(C) 4- land- $F~~~ geography DF(C) 4- geo- 

O graphy 

HO DdF4-AO DF Hd DF 4- A 



The computation of the Interpretations that could be expressed in formulae is given 
below. By computation is meant the adding up of the responses of the same appereeptive 
mode,, or which are the same In other qualities. 

1. Apperceptlve Mod. 

W 11 L e., responses interpreting the plate as a whole were given 11 times. 

D 17 i. e., responses using normal details were given 17 times. 

Dd 3 i. e. small and uncommon details were picked out by the subject three time-. 
It should be noted that a number of the 17 D's were nearly Dd's. No absurd 
small details were used, however; it is characteristic of most schizophrenics that 
they do choose absurd tiny details. There is, nevertheless, a definite tendency 
to choose unusual though not absurd parts. 

S 3 None of these three is a pure intermediate or space interpretation since all use 

___ _ neighboring parts of the figures. 
34 

2. Quality of the Responses. 

F 22 i. e., 22 of the 34 responses given for the ten plates were form interpretations. 
Of this number, 5 are minus in sign, that is, are poorly visualized, making 
F-p/o = 77^ The number of F4- is rather higher than usual. 

M 4 i. e., 4 interpretations were determined by kinaesthesias. The fact that several 

interpretations might possibly have been kinaesthetically determined must not 
be -neglected, however, so that 4 may be considsred too small rather than too 
large a count in this case. Furthermore, there is a tendency to give small M* 



191 

responses tecondar} M"s. The symptomatic of 

responses remains rather ! . 

FC 1 1. e., there la. bat one Interpretation is rattier doubtful- '?b*rtl<* 

collection * la Plate X-- -in which form is the color 

also Ins Influence. 
CF 1 i. e., a single interpretation -'(Well of fire give* off f Plate III 

which is determined primarily h> the color of the blot is aoi 

entirely neglected. 
C There Is, however, a tendency toward sudb > rotor responses as In 

the interpretation last mentioned above. In C responses the form of the 

has no part whatever. 
F(C) 6 i. e., 6 responses In which light were the 

than actual color. 

~34 

3. Content of the 

H . 5 

Hd . . 3 

A 11 

Ad ...... 2 

Anatomy . 4 

Fountain . 1 

Geography 3 

Landscape ........... 2 

Smoke . 2 

Fire i 



34 

H and A indicate interpretations involving the entire human or animal figure, Hd anil 
Ad interpretations dealing with parts of such figures. 

Relative Number. 

Besides the F+ percentage already computed, experience lias shown several other 
relationships of this sort to be of value in the interpretation of the results of the test. 
They will be discussed in detail below. 

1. Percent animal responses in this case 38% of all interpretations deal with animals 
or part of animals. 

2. Vulgar responses, i. e,, those interpretations which occur once in every three re- 
cords. In this case they form 21 % of the total. 

3. Original responses are the rare interpretations which occur once in a hundred tests. 
Here, these too amount to 21 %. This number might be judged actually higher rather 
than lower; the same is true for the Vulgar responses. 

1 Since the publication of the Psychodiagnostics, Rorschach has designated kinaesthetic 
interpretations of small and unusual parts of the figures as small M, differentiating them 
from the other M responses which are Ws or D's. In this he was probably guidied by the 
experience that, as a rule, only interpretations involving the whole or the normal details 
of the figures involve kinaesthetic influences. Small M*s are, for the most part, not ex- 
perienced as kinaesthesias in the primary interpretation, but are added and felt secondarily. 
Sometimes they are purely confabulatory ornamentations of the interpretation and appear 
to indicate pleasure in confabulating and vivid affective life in the subject. Cf. H. Behn- 
Eschenburg, Psychische Schuleruntersuchungen mit dem Formdeutversuch. Inaug.-Diss., 
Zurich, 1921. 



192 - 

There are, furthermore, t few individual responses, I e., responses which have been 

only by thi* patient. Tlhesf trc the fire femdke interpretations of Plate II and the 
bowcdi figure of Plate IV* a well as the unformulatecl abstract responses, the line of 
force In the middle, etc. 

4. The Apperceptive type which in tills rase is: W^ - D (Dd S). 

Thifc formula w intended to express the approximate proportion of the modes of ap- 
perception 10 etrfe other. The normal formula it* V D; if the number of responses were 
the same as In thi* ease the distribution would be about as follows: 8 W, 23 D, 2 Dd, and 
I S. In our caic the number of W*s is relatively too large, the number of D*s too small, 
and there are too many Dd\t ami S's* Conaecjuenll;}, "we must underline the W and add Dd 
and S in parenthesis. 

Sequence i orderly, or, at most, only slightly loose. Thi means that, in general, the 
subject lends to interpret first W^ then D, aadS then Del, so that there is t certain logical 
sequence of the inocle of apperception. 

The figures obtained by calculations based on the record are by no means to be con- 
sidered as absolute. A general %iew of the total findings must be retained so as to avoid. 
being tripped np by the figure for a particular factor. On ibe other hand, these figures 
form the bmnm of the Interpretation, of what I tiaYe called the iptiychograin*. I consider it 
quite impossible to obtain a definite and reliable interpretation from the records, even 
after a great deal of experience and practice, unless the calculations are made. 

2. The Interpretation* 

In view of the extraordinary variability of the findings, no definite direc- 
tions can be given as t which factor would be the easiest and most con- 
venient to use in starting the interpretation. It is, however, generally safest 
to begin with the color responses; these responses have been found empir- 
ically to be the representatives of the affectivity, the total affective respons- 
iveness. Another reliable point of departure might he the unusual status of 
any one factor of the experiment, or any unusual correlation between the 
factors. This method offers many opportunities to arrive at definite conclu- 
sions quickly. For instance, if well visualized forms constitute 100% of the 
responses, that is, If all the forms have been chosen carefully, and, in addi- 
tion, there is a definite tendency to interpret Do, pedantic, small details, then 
it is fairly obvious that we deal with a compulsion neurosis or a depression. 
If there are many whole interpretations, especially wholes made up by com- 
bining normal details (D), and at the same time many M's, then the subject 
is certainly imaginative. If the experience type is extratensive, i. e,, if the 
color responses predominate over the M interpretations, and if there is a 
high percentage of well visualized forms and a high percent animal response, 
then the subject is a skillful and alert worker with good capacity for making 
adaptions, though somewhat stereotyped. If the sequence of W, D, etc., is 
rigid to the maximum, i. e., if the subject interprets a W, then a D and then 
a few Dd regularly for each plate, then the subject certainly is a skillful 
logician but an unaccommodating systematist, etc. Thus it is seen that there 
are a large number of correlations which can be grasped very quickly and 
thereby permit the establishment of the main lines of the psychogram with- 



193 

out great difficulty. When no such correlations are present It is so 

to attack the records. When the factors toward average the 

findings approach the normal It is more difficult 10 the Too 

many averages make the records rather colorless. 

The findings in the present case deviate in 

more than one particular and* in addition, exhibit a which clari- 

fies the problem to a decree at once. This is the lack of 

the long pauses which occur when the subject encounters the colored plates, 
whereas previously, on the black blots, he had interpreted freely. This 

is color-shock. 

The symptom value of color interpretations lies in the field of affectivity. 
The FC responses represent adaptable affectivity; CF C n on the other 

hand, represent non-adaptable, egocentric affectivity* The proportions of the 
various types of color responses to each other make it possible to draw con- 
clusions concerning the emotional dynamics of the subject. Color shock also 
contributes to such conclusions. It invariably indicates neurotic repres- 
sion of affect. Suppression of color responses as expressed in color shock is a 
pathognomonic sign of neurotic repression of affect. 

There are other means of demonstrating this process of suppression, When 
the color responses are suppressed, kinaesthetic factors are usually, probably 
always, suppressed as well. My previous researches have shown that kin- 
aesthesias represent the capacity for inner life, i. e., introversion. Plate I 
has been selected so that it allows interpretation as an M if the subject is at 
all kinaesthetically inclined. In fact, normal subjects tend to give kinaesthet- 
icallay determined responses for Plate 1 beginning with the second or third 
response if, indeed, not with the very first. If it is found that the total record 
indicates some kinaesthetic tendencies and that, in spite of this, BO M 
responses have been given for Plate I, then it is certain that kinaesthetic 
factors are being suppressed. The present subject gave kinaesthetic responses 
only after the first plate and in accordance with this fact we find that true 
color responses for the colored plates also appear late (in Plate X). It follows, 
therefore, that both color and kinaesthetic factors are in a state of partial 
suppression in this case and that the kinaesthetic (introversive) as well as 
the affective (extratensive) side of the experience type is narrowed and 
coartated by processes of neurotic repression 1 . 

1 With reference to the concepts introversion* and extrateiision, note pages 72 to 
87 in the P e ychodiagnostics. I add a statement for superficial orientation. Rorschach re- 
served the usual expression introverted or cintrovertmty* for the state in which the 
subject is turned in upon himself, and he calls the person showing a marked preponderance 
of M, icitroversive, M responses heing representative of inner life or of living mtnm 
ones self. Persons with a large predominance of CF and C responses tend more to out- 
ward life anil show more motor excitability and affective lability. These Korschach de- 
signates as extratensive. In this he wishes to express the fact that these are not fixed 
traits hut mobile potentialities, not contrasting but different psychisms tlie first being re- 

Rorschuch, Psjchodiopnoslics. 



194 

There Is a third of repression. In the absence of repression the sub- 

ject interprets movement color in the in a more or less haphazard 

fashion. This free toixing of movement, form and color responses appears to 
be characteristic of persons who are free of c complexes*. This undoubtedly 
that the normal dynamics of human experience cannot be settled simply 
by the introverted extravetted. Evidently there is a to and fro swing 

between introvcrsivlty and extratensivity. This free oscillation between intro- 
versioa and extratension is restricted in the presence of repressive processes. 
In the experiment, this restriction is shown by the fact that a normal subject 
with klnaesthetic tendencies gives color responses when confronted with the 
colored plates*, but soon returns to kinaesthetlc interpretations, perhaps after, 
giving four or five responses. (Color responses usually begin with Plate VIII, 
the first that is fully colored). The repressed subject is virtually chained to 
color In the present case the first M interpretation is the eleventh response, 
an evidence of the fact that the fluid relationship between the factors of 
ioner life and those of outwardly directed affect is disturbed by neurotic 
repressive processes, an evidence that the normal, free and unobstructed flow 
between introversion and extratension is disturbed in this subject. 

At this stage it can be concluded definitely that we are dealing with a 
neurosis, and that further investigation is possible. There is obviously no 
psychosis at least no manifest psychosis for in psychoses color shock never 
appears. The subject shows 4 M : l ! /2 CF 1 . This would be the formula for 
his experience type. The M's outweigh the colors even though factors other 
than rigid adherence to the figures are considered. As was noted above, more 
of the F responses could be considered as influenced by kinaesthetic deter- 
minants than were influenced by color. In other words, the tendency to give 
kinaesthetic interpretations is stronger than the urge to interpret color; the 
experience type of the individual is, therefore, more introversive than extra- 
tensive. Recalling the processes of suppression we have already shown to be 
present in the patient, this conclusion might be expressed more correctly by 
saying that the introversive features of the experience type were more resis- 

presented by kinaesttiesias and the second by color responses. Tlie adjective ^introverted*) 
would, then, indicate the rigid preponderance of introversive tendencies over the non- 
ititroversive or extratensive tendencies. The terms introversivity and extratensivity 
would denote the capacity for, and t introversion* and extratension the process of, be- 
coming introverted or extratended, or turning toward one self or toward the outside world. 
In any given case, the range between introversivity and extratensivity is the experience 
type. Rorschach calls the experience type coartated if the values for M and C responses 
approach zero; when both introversive and extratensive capacities are present to a marked 
degree, the experience type is designated as broadened or dilated. 

1 Rorschach found it practical to balance the unit M against the unit CF. He felt 
theoretically justified in this practice since form enters into consideration in both M and 
CF responses in addition to the primary determinants of movement and color. FC responses 
were evaluated as one-half, and primary Cs as one and one-half units. (Psychodiagnostics, 
P. 35.) 



195 

to repression the extratensivc features. The narrowing 

ti0a has affected the extra tensive features It has the 

introversive. 

In my experience the with to the 

In the more extratensive experience types hysterical pre- 

dominate while in Introversive types neurasthenic 
toms are dominant. The nearer the experience type 

i e., the more nearly equal the number of movement color answers he- 

come, the more compulsion phenomena appear in the neurotic picture. The 
clearest compulsive neurosis lies between the hysterical psychasthenic 

pictures in the experience type schemes. Therefore, it may *e expected 
our patient will show neurasthenic and psychasthetiic symptoms, and it 
be assumed that there will be some compulsion phenomena since the ex- 
perience type is not too far from ambieqtiality* To review, then, we have 
concluded from the existence of color shock that there is a neurosis, and 
from the experience type that the neurosis is of a particular form, namely^ 
psychasthenia with compulsive (obsessive) features. 

Returning to the computations, it will be seen that the relationships re- 
ferring to the affect are at first rather vague. FC, with the C in parepthesis 
(F[CJ), predominate. These are interpretations in which color values do not 
have determining influence, but are replaced by values of light and shadow. 
The symptomatic indications inherent in such interpretations are not yet 
entirely clear; the interpretations appear to have something to do with the 
capacity for affective adaptability, but also indicate a timid, cautious andl 
hampered sort of adaptability. Further, they indicate self-control before 
others and a tendency toward a fundamentally depressive disposition which 
the subject tries to control when others are present. On the other hand, there 
is at least one interpretation which reveals markedly egocentric affectivity, 
namely, the first color response, fire and smoke (Plate II). When the first 
color response is egocentric and is then followed by equivocal responses, as 
is the case in our patient, a violent and impulsive affectivity is generally 
indicated; nevertheless, this violent affectivity is subject to control. In this 
case, then, we see conscious rather than unconscious repression of affect, and 
Jess actual repression than conscious struggle against the subject's own af- 
fective reactions. Hence, for the time being, we can only conclude that there 
are two affective tendencies opposed to each other in our patient: 1. a de- 
pressive one outwardly controlled 'and rather timidly adapted, and 2. an 
egocentric-impulsive trend which is controlled to the utmost degree both 
outwardly before others and inwardly as well. 

The color responses do not allow any further conclusions at this time, and 
we now turn to other factors of the experiment. The problem of intellectual 
rapport and adaptability furnishes a starting point, the solution of which may 
be sought in a number of factors. 



1% _ 



Apperceptive type and sequence will be discussed first. The apperceptive 

type is that of an individual who neither loses himself In small details (Dd) 
nor rigidly slicks to giving whole conceptions (W). The entire test shows. 
rather,, that tie first tries to give a whole response to each plate before turn- 
ing to the D*s that the sequence is quite orderly without being maximally 
rigid. This means that there Is no scattering nor any programmatic rigidity 
in his method of thinking, but that in general the reasoning displays common 
sense, that is, is capable of adapting itself to the task at hand discriminating 
important from side issues. On further ex animation* however, the sequence 
does show an individual peculiarity aside from the fact mentioned above, that 
the number of D's is rather small for the large number of Ws and DdV 
This will be discussed later. 

In Plate 1 the subject interprets a whole response first, then turns to the 
middle of the plate and interprets a bony structure, then the skeleton, and 
filially reverts to a whole response in interpreting the flying creature with 
the body lying in the middle of the Plate. With the second plate the first 
response is again a whole; then he turns to the middle as before and inter- 
prets a landscape and, after that, starting again with the middle part of the 
figure, the subject constructs a "W, the well of fire with the columns of smoke 
above from which the flames burst out. Again in the third plate a W is given 
first, then the subject turns again to the middle, giving the interpretation, 
It is as though that red thing in the middle were a power separating the 
two sides, preventing them from meeting. The sequence, first W, then a 
detail from the middle, then an inclusive interpretation starting from the 
middle, a "W or a response composed of several D's (D"W). This sequence 
reveals quite definitely a sort of programmatism in the thinking processes. 

Several points are to be observed in this connection. First, this sequence 
furnishes an insight into the manner in which the subject first takes a general 
reconnoitering view, then fastens on the central detail, and finally develops 
the whole from this central detail, a sort of construction. The first Ws, the 
reconnoitering ones, are usually rather abstract; they are ideas which the sub- 
ject himself does not trust very much. Actually, the first interpretation for 
each plate is neither very original nor very clearly perceived. The later inter- 
pretations for each plate, however, all show a constructive tendency. The first 
abstract whole interpretations are as indefinite, hazy and uneven as these 
later constructive ones are definite, even and convincing. We can thus con- 
clude that the subject reasons better inductively than deductively, better 
synthetically than analytically, and better concretely than abstractly. The fact 
that the first interpretation is abstract in spite of all this, allows the con- 
clusion that while the subject certainly attempts to make a survey of the 
whole problem in every case by making a rapid reconnoitering review of it, 
he is nevertheless not satisfied with this and does not feel at ease until he 
can turn to the details and to a constructive production arising out of them. 



The setfiieiice permits one further deduction. The at- 

tention to details, but not those details which by virtue of 

their prominent position In the plate. He disregards a number of 
details which are easy to interpret*, especially avoiding those 'whi*h are 

laterally, and usually turns to the middle of the for his 

nhen he has nothing concrete to interpret his attention still hovers 
the center of the figure. Looking over these interpretations we see 

that they fall Into the group that cannot be classified: .-the power 
the two sides, preventing them from meeting , the line of foree on whieh 
everything depends* ., the power around which everything Is grouped >, the 
well of fire and smoke. All these have been constructed from a 
detail. Here again we see a certain programmatism in the thinking. Despite 
the predominance of concrete reasoning he has a tendency toward the abs- 
tract. This tendency must be psychogenetically determined since we cannot 
be deceived into believing that abstractive reasoning is easier for this sub- 
ject than constructive thinking. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that 
abstract interpretations generally are conditioned by complexes;*. This would 
be particularly true in this case where they always arise from things in the 
middle line. The individual peculiarity of the sequence in our subject is, then, 
complex determined)*. It would appear that a more or less compulsive over- 
emphasis of abstract reasoning is present here, and that this stands in oppo- 
sition to the actual and natural disposition to be more concrete than abstract, 
more constructive than abstract. 

Consideration of the apperceptive type leads a step further. As was men- 
tioned in connection with the computation of the factors, the number of Ws 
and Dd's is somewhat too large, and the number of D's rather too low. 
Neglecting the sequence for the moment, this apperceptive type would in- 
dicate that the subject shows a certain tendency to overlook the most tan- 
gible and essential things in -the plates, the Ws. These details are always the 
expression of the sense for grasping the immediate, essential considerations 
in any problem. The tendency to give Ws, representing a tendency toward 
making generalizations, is somewhat over-emphasized. The tendency to get 
lost in details to choose Dd's in the test is also over-emphasized. There is, 
then, a contradiction here, in that the subject, on the one hand, tends to 
seek out far-fetched connections but, at the other extreme, also tends to 
brood over incidental niceties. This same contradiction which is found here 
in the field of intellectual processes has already been noted in the emotional 
processes. There the subject was found to have a strong though somewhat 
restrained egocentric-impulsive trend but, at the same time, a depressive 
trend and timid adaption which he covers up. We might at this time continue 
on this line of investigation to find further relations between this pair of 
contradictions and the responses from which these parts of the psychogram 
are derived. The method would be practicable but circuitous; it is, further- 



more, very important IE making Interpretations to pet 100 far away from 
the only of any interpretations, namely* the protocol and the computa- 

tions from It* If this precaution is observed there is danger of 

deriving too much from a single factor to build structure of inter- 

pretation on another. 

For this it is necessary to search for another factor which will 

furnish further Indications concerning the intellectual adaptability of the 
subject* Such a factor is number of vulgar responses 21 /o in our case and 
their distribution. The vulgar responses represent the share in the collective 
or common way of sensing or perceiving things. The number of vulgar 
responses is low even when responses which approach the vulgar are included. 
On this basis, we conclude that the subject does not share in the common 
of perceiving to any great extent. We will now relate this small per- 
centage of vulgar responses with the already established fact that the subject 
gives too few D interpretations, which indicates that his sense of what is 
tangible and essential is somewhat reduced by a need, perhaps on an obses- 
sional basis, for indulging in abstract processes of reasoning. Indeed, among 
the vulgar responses which are present, there are none which make use of 
D's. The number of detail responses, and these are the ones which are also 
frequently vulgar, is small in this case. Here, again, is a contradiction: even 
though the subject interprets concretely and constructively he lacks, never- 
theless, a certain simple skill and readiness in making adaptions. What this 
is, is the quick wit of the practical man who, because of his freedom to grasp 
any opportunity, can see through and master any situation. It is the genuine 
opportunism of the practical adjustment to the matter at hand and self-as- 
sured efficiency in conceiving and handling a situation. 

The original interpretations are the opposite of the vulgar responses, and 
in this case the two are equal in amount 21 ^/o. It must be emphasized that 
this is a genuine originality* It is not the originality of the shop-talker, nor 
does it consist in hair-splitting differentiations, but is rather representative of 
well-developed individuality with an independent way of looking at things. 
This is apparent in the primary conception as well as in the elaboration of 
the responses, and is especially in evidence in the constructive elaboration 
of the original impression. Many of these responses are not only original, but 
individual, that is, are responses given by this patient alone. These will be 
discussed below. 

The percentage of form and form-color interpretations are the last factors 
to be mentioned in this connection. This subject gave 77 /o clearly visualized 
forms. If the FC responses in which C is placed in parenthesis the black- 
white interpretations are considered, and these are closely allied with forms 
and are all sharply conceived, then the F+ percent rises to 80 or 85. Further- 
more, two of the poorly visualized forms which depress the F+ percentage 
are anatomical interpretations. In subjects who are not physicians such res- 



me -.. 

Indicate either a the la try to ac im- 

pression of ' Intelligence i> or a to or 

to both. An F-f- percent of 80 to 85 is a 

approaching or reaching 100 e /e of well-chosen are In oat- 

spoken and grumblers In the wi normal* 

try to be most rigidly objective in their This to the 

production of but 2 or 3 whole responses, D Dd ex- 

clusively; they do not dare to venture on constructive or 
of thinking. Our patient, in spite of the anxious predilection 

In the study of Ms method of adapting himself. Is quite 

to this type. 

The FC responses represent the capacity for affective rapport 
ability, a kind of combination of affective and Intellectual adaptability. They 
are, In general, characteristic of the normal individual who is well-adapted 
and Is capable of making new adaptations. Our subject gave but one form* 
color response and this Is a questionable one; it could have been a color-form 
or a form interpretation as well. Just this demonstrates the In the pa- 

tient's emotional life; he Is, on the one hand, expansively egocentric in Ms 
affectivity, but on the other, shows the consciously cautious adaption re- 
presented In the test by the chiaroscuro interpretations. His wish to apply 
himself to the task and his capacity to do so are beyond all question; Dr. 
Oberholzer states that he showed this trait to a marked degree In the per- 
formance of the test. 

Before going further with the Investigation, It would be well to sum- 
marize briefly what we have been able to learn thus far in the Interpretation 
of the record. This is a neurosis In an introverslve experience type; hence pre- 
dominance of psychasthenic features. There are probably compulsive (obses- 
sive) phenomena. There Is deficiency of freedom in affective adaptions. Two 
contradictory tendencies exist. .First, the depressively colored, ail-to o-consclous 
and highly intellectuallzed manner of adaptation; and second, the expan- 
sively egocentric trend in affective life. The intelligence is, on the whole, 
good, keen, original, more concrete than abstract, more inductive than de- 
ductive, although there is a contradiction In that the subject exhibits a rather 
weak sense for dealing with the obvious and the practical. This, too, re- 
presents a gap; on the one hand, there is obsessive compulsion In the direc- 
tion of abstract, generalizing patterns of thought; on the other, a compulsion 
to begin his constructive pattern, not with what is practical and essential, but 
with a central point chosen on the basis of a complex. He thus gets cstock 
on trifling and subordinate details, embroiling himself In them. There is, how- 
ever, no scattering; affective and intellectual self-discipline and mastery are 
apparent. 

Of the remaining factors, we have yet to discuss the three space figures. 
Space responses always indicate some sort of oppositional trend. When the 



experience type is extratensive* this takes the form of some 0utwanl <i > op- 
position, defiance, a tendency to indulge in polemics, to make contradictions 
to be aggressively stubborn. In aa ambieqiial experience type, this op- 
positional tendency is directed the subjects own consciousness and 
gives rise to skepticism, doubt, hesitancy, vacillation, and indecision as well 
as emotional ambivalence and ambi-tendencies. Obsessional thoroughness, a 
desire to collect things* and a compulsion in the direction of completeness 
in all are also not infrequently present. When the experience type Is 
introversive, the space Interpretations appear to indicate opposition to the 
subject's own uuter life, resulting In constant self-distrust, feelings of in- 
sufficiency of every sort, self-criticism and circumstantiality; frequently there 
is an admixture of phlegmatism and asceticism. 

Our patient shows an experience type definitely introversive, but close 
to the ambiequal. Hence there will be a predominance of ideas of insuffi- 
ciency, referring particularly to the Innermost self, the productive sphere of 
the personality, a distrust of himself, his ability to produce. We shall also 
have to expect the phenomena of the ambieqiial type, for In our subject both 
introversive and extratenslve features are repressed, and the resulting coarta- 
tlon tends In the direction of ambiequality. Skepticism, doubt and ambi- 
valence will, therefore, be present with the characteristics mentioned above. 
We may assume that both the tendency toward opposition to the inner self 
and opposition to the more conscious life combine to result In the following 
picture: grumblings and doubts about his own intelligence, indecision, phan- 
tasies of insufficiency, compulsive meticulousaess, obsessive throughness, a 
drive to view things from all angles, the need to hear the other side of the 
story every time, having exacerbations of rigid objectivity and pedantic self- 
correction almost to the extent of becoming an ascetic. The neurotic element 
In the case is much more clearly demonstrated now than It has been before. 
It is striking to note how the study of the space responses defines the 
neurotic aspects of the record. This is frequently the case, though I am, as 
yet, unable to say why it should be. The space responses frequently furnish 
such clues, and It is probable that other factors would also contain clues for 
the investigation; this will be known only through further experience. 

There Is another characteristic of the space responses In this case which 
makes them specific for this subject, makes them individual. At least two of 
them are made use of In the elaboration of chiaroscuro interpretations, and 
both in a quite similar manner, I refer to the roads in perspective seen In 
Plates II and X. Two quite different situations are revealed in these inter- 
pretations. If we begin the analysis with the space responses we arrive at the 
conclusion that there are ideas of insufficiency in the subject; if we start 
with the other half of the formula, DSF(C), namely the chiaroscuro inter- 
pretation, we come to the conclusion mentioned above, that the affective adap- 
tions are made carefully and are cautiously guarded. Thus it cannot be denied 



there Is a very close relationship between the idea** of insufficiency 

the patient's methods for correcting on the 

toward measured affective on the other. It lit* 

each of these two factors (S and F[C]i lias a to the 

of the interpretation; according to the In previous I 

have seen, this proves to he* the case. Tliose subjects 

chiaroscuro interpretations showed definite the content 

influenced by complex material in the of correc- 

tion of this Influence, that is to say, as wish-fulfillments. Such 

in this ease deal with landscapes, one say 

Other Individuals see castles and towers, temples arches, etc. When such 

answers occur in a test it Is safe to conclude that the 

self disrupted in his Dinner* (mental) life, weak, out of joint n inwardly In- 
harmonious; he projects these feelings in the form of wish-fulfillments Into 
the test, responding with constructions, streets, temples and arches. The feel- 
ings of insufficiency., the feeling of having iraitded badly in Ms own life, be- 
trayed in introversive subjects by the space responses, and the trend toward 
depression and caution in the affectivity shown in the chiaruscuro responses, 
appear together to be the unconscious basis for the interpreting of 
constructed, such interpretations existing as compensations (corrections). 

There is one final noteworthy characteristic of these interpre*atlons. These 
chiaroscuro responses emphasize the depth of the picture as a dimension 
more than any of the other interpretations. Our subject also stresses perspec- 
tive and in his other interpretations of this kind notes a three dimensional 
quality. According to my experience, this indicates that a peculiar type of 
psychological correlation is functioning here. There is a special talent for 
the appreciation of spatial relationships, of depth and distance which ap- 
pears to be correlated with the cautious and measured affectivity with de- 
pressive nuances. This talent frequently, perhaps always, is correlated with 
feeling of insufficiency, the content of which is feelings of loss of solidity, 
of instability, of being out of joint with the times. Black and white Inter- 
pretations which deal with architectural structures and which are original or 
approach originality permit the conclusion that the subject possesses a marked 
ability to visualize objects in space and has a talent for construction. I drew 
this conclusion in this case and It proved to be correct though I had no Ink- 
ling of the patient's profession and he did not reveal It In the manifest con- 
tent of his Interpretations. Dr. Oberholzer gave me the record of the analysis 
later. It contains a number of remarks about the pattern 1 of his psychological 
personality and these affirm the presence of constructive talents. He has 
demonstrated this talent more than once in his work as a mechanical engineer 



1 German = Formale. 



202 

by creative Inspirations, In the way, the notes of the analysis confirm 

the presence of the ability to visualize In which Is so we!! developed 

In this subject. He can tell, before any drawings are by mental 

visualization alone, whether or not a proposed construction can actually be 
reduced to drawings. Building become alive for him and give him a 

formative of the finished completed structure. On the other hand, 

it is impossible for hint to conceive a new original form. 

With this matter of constructive thinking we are brought to consider the 
W which prove, in many instances, to be made up of details. These 

constructive whole responses alone do not allow the conclusion to be drawn 
that the subject has technical talents and capabilities for construction, but* 
only Indicate the ways and means used in reaching intellectual ends, A sub- 
ject who shows constructive W responses will build up Ms conclusion from 
one or another unit and will have a tendency to adjust his whole according 
to the unit he first apperceived. He will create surprising conceptions but at 
times will fall into the production of works burdened by too much ideation. 
If certain intuitive powers are available to the subject he will be able to 
survey large groups of material and organize them with a remarkable cer- 
tainty. On the other hand, should this intuition fail him, he will be blindly 
one-sided in his constructions and will tend to treat all things in the same 
way. But if it can be established that constructive talents as described above 
are present and if there are also a number of well-balanced constructive 
whole apperceptions, then it can be stated that these two groups of psychisms 
- constructive thinking and an actual talent for technical construction may 
be combined to produce outstanding achievements. 

I mentioned intuition above. If a subject interprets clever Ws which 
arise particularly rapidly into his grasp, and if abstract and constructive as 
well as combinatory associative processes are intermingled in their produc- 
tion, we can conclude with certainty that he has intuitive capacities. In this 
record the fire and smoke interpretation of Plate II most closely approaches 
the signs of the presence of intuition. To be sure construction is preponderant, 
but the conception of this interpretation appears to have been the result of 
a single glance. It can be demonstrated that such intuitive interpretations 
are rich in complex material. On the other hand, it is almost exclusively 
persons with dilated experience type, those who furnish many movement and 
color responses, who give intuitive interpretations. The fewer M*s and the 
fewer C*s, the more rare are these intuitive interpretations, because neurotic 
repressions eventually stifle the intuitive powers. Not every intuition, how- 
ever, has the full value of an intuition. To have this value, there must be 
capacity for coartation as well as for dilatation, for the forms first arise as 
the result of the conscious use of that psychic sphere the function of which 
is the production of clear, self-limited forms. There must, then, be capacity 



203 - -- 

for dilatation and coartalloE in the ^ organ to 

version cxtratension functionally. be of 

the subject has the ability to the In the 

dilated experience as a whole form; is to say* he be to 

from dilated to coartated type quickly, if Is the 

intuitions be of value. The value Is to be 

first, when there is too little capacity for coartatlon, the 

habitual coartation is too marked. If there is too little to 

the intuition will remain sketchy have the character of an of 

a castle of dreams, of unadaptable Utopias. On the other the 

habitual experience type is of too coartation, is when 

alone is dominant, or when coartatlon is too of neurotic re- 

pressions, intuition becomes paralysed. This last is the situation in our 
where the neurosis cripples the freedom of * inner* productivity, as is fre- 
quently the case. Obviously this is no new contribution. What is new, how- 
ever, is the fact that we are able by means of the test to follow the conflict 
between the repressing conscious and the repressed unconscious, observe 

how the neurotic repressions narrow the productive sphere see how 

freedom of Dinner life is completely stifled by conscious restraints (correc- 
tions) and by compulsive super-criticism. On this we are to under- 
stand why it is that our patient always throws himself into abstract thinking 
first and does it in so inadequate a manner, and to understand why EC allows 
himself to be led by complex determined conceptions rather than his own 
adequate constructive anlage. The reason lies in a compulsive state arising 
out of depressive feelings of insufficiency. 

And finally, a correction. Hitherto we have paid too much attention to 
the introversive features in our patient and have neglected the extratensive 
side. The fact that the patient produced an almost intuitive color-form inter- 
pretation with the first plate containing any color (Plate II) indicates that 
the simple computation of the color responses undervalues the extratensive 
features. Introversive features are certainly preponderant, but extratensive 
features are not as weak as at first appeared, and it may be safely assumed 
that at least occasionally it is possible for this experience type to swing to- 
ward the extratensive side. When subjects have had or still have extratensive 
periods of some duration, the psychogram and, with it, the diagnosis must 
be changed. In the extratensive periods the patient must necessarily be cap- 
able of showing spite and revolt tendencies and impulsive actions and aggres- 
sive adjustments, and at such times the quality of the neurosis must change 
so that hysterical-conversion symptoms replace psychasthenic symptoms, and 
the compulsive phenomena take on a different character. Compulsive acts 
and feelings and possibly compulsive movements may appear. 

Nevertheless, the whole personality receives a certain stabilization in that 
the introversive and rather autistic attitude toward the external world will 



_ 204 

not be broken easily, in spite of a strong desire in the patient to 

apply himself in sphere. Pt>r the most part the patient is a psychasthenic, 
always at with himself, dissatisfied with Ms accomplishments, easily 

but recovering because of his need for application* He finds little 

full, free affective rapport rnith the world about him, and shows a rather 
marked tendency to go his owe way. The dominant mood, the habitual, under- 
lying affective tone Is rather anxious depressed and passively resigned. 
Thanks to the adequate intellectual capacity capacity for intellectual 
adaption, til these condition^ can be and are controlled to the greatest 
extent. 

3. The Findings Psychoanalysis, 

The relationship between the findings of this experiment and psycho- 
analysis, the real topic of this paper, will be discussed in the following pages. 
This relationship may be demonstrated best by means of a scheme in which 
the Interpretations given by our subject are arranged in the following order; 

The middle column of the scheme lists those interpretations which are 
pure form responses (F). The column, to the extreme left contains the inter- 
pretations which were kinaesthetically determined (M). The column between 
two lists those interpretations which may have a kinaesthetic deter- 
minant (F tending to M). The right outside column lists the pure color inter- 
pretations at the bottom (C), above these come the color-form responses (CF), 
and at the top of the column, the form-color interpretations (FC). The fourth 
column, between the last mentioned and the form column, contains those FC 
Interpretations in which the C is placed in parentheses, that is, the chiaroscuro 
responses, those in which a form interpretation tends in the direction of 
color. V indicates the vulgar responses, the original responses, and the 
individual responses are printed in italics. 

This grouping conforms closely to one which I have been using for a 
long time and which recurs constantly in the Psychodiagnostics. The middle 
column represents the conscious functions; the F percentage is an indicator 
of the clarity of the associative processes and, at the same time, of the length 
of the span of attention and the capacity for concentration in the subject *. 
The left half of the scheme represents the introversive, and the right half 
the extratensive features in the person tested. From the relations of the two 
halves of the scheme, that is, between M and (CF + C) certain obvious in- 
ferences concerning the extent and activity of autistic thinking may be 
drawn. The clarity of the forms and the orderliness of the sequence indicate 
the balancing factor, namely, the extent and effectiveness of disciplined 
reasoning. In correlating the concepts of the conscious and unconscious as 
used in psychoanalysis to the experimental factors, it is obvious that, in 

1 Compare 'the chapter on intelligence, p* 56. 



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_ 206 

regard to the symptom-values,, the M C FC responses are more closely 
related to the unconscious than the form interpretations that individual 

original responsesin so far as we deal with genuine originality and not 
with sh0p talk reveal more about the individual strivings of the subject 
have more psychoanalytic meaning than the vulgar answers. 

In our case, it hardly he mere chance that the most original M res- 
should designate two stooping, and that the most original color 

interpretation should be such a peculiarly constructed, almost intuitive, pic- 
ture of fire with thick flickering flames. There must be a definite 
relationship between the interpretation of the stooping men and the intro* 
vcrsive content, and between the fire picture and the affective tone of the 
subject. The subject cannot be conscious of this for he gives no attention to 
whether he gives II, F or C interpretations. The most striking and therefore 
the most individual interpretations, as I have pointed out in the section on 
interpretation, the abstract ones which could not be expressed in a formula, 
must have a background in the uti conscious, however rationalized they ap- 
pear to be* (These responses are gathered together in the scheme in the 
middle column just under the form responses.) If any of the interpretations 
reveal complex material it should surely be in these original and individual 
responses which include M and C factors, for in these there are definite re- 
lations between the formal and content spheres* 

This assumption first proved to be true in the M interpretations. The ac- 
tual object interpreted is not important any more than the manifest con- 
tent of a dream is of importance in dream interpretation but the particular 
kind of kinaesthesia. Subjects who see predominantly movements in exten* 
sion, figures stretching or rising, are significantly different from those who 
interpret bent and bowed, burdened and twisted figures, or figures in kneel- 
ing or recumbent positions. Subjects who interpret extension kinaesthesias 
are active individuals with strong drives toward importance and activity 
although they frequently show neurotic inhibitions. Those who see flexion 
kinaesthesias have passive and resigned natures *. Thus in Plate V, holding 
the plate with the narrow edge as the base, a representative of the first group 
saw a danseuse leaping upwards and making passionate movements. In the 
same plate one of the second group saw a stooped old woman carrying two 
umbrellas under her arm. In the protocol of a politician which I received 
recently, the only kinaesthetic interpretation in the test concerned itself with 
two gigantic gods clinging to something. This man also gave several original 
color responses which constantly repeated the same theme, namely, the in- 
side of the earth, the center of a volcano,, the core of the earth, etc. He also, 
like our present subject, gave several abstract interpretations in which the 
center line and middle parts of the plate formed the stimulus for responses 

1 Compare p. 29. 



207 - 

which are variations of tiie theme. These themselves 

with the germ out of which all develop. Hence on the ane 

we have and on tie other the of the the 

from which all grows. These Interpretations arouse the '^suspicion-* there 

are present ideas of re-making the world show he a politi- 

cian, particularly how lie became a constructive 

have taught me that the content of interpolations have a of Its 

own, a meaning which is determined primarily by relationships which 
between form>/ and content, between the pattern the of the 

interpretations. 

We return now to our patient whom Dr. Oberholzer has analysed to see 
what was demonstrated by the help of the psychoanalytical-historical material 
and the results of the analysis. 

a) The M Interpretations. 

The M responses represent introversion, the inner life, in the pattern 
of reaction in the test. The greater the predominance of kinaesttietic Inter- 
pretations over color interpretations, the more introversive Is the subject 
and the greater the role of introversive mechanisms in his psychic life, with 
a tendency to regression and to react against the world. 

In our case there is a clear predominance of flexion klnaestheslas. Indeed, 
the most original M interpretation of the whole test is the peculiar twisted 
figure of Plate IV. The conclusions drawn from the consideration of the 
whole test are borne out by this special type of M response; the subject is 
not only introversive, but flexion kinaesthesias play an important role in his 
introversion. There must, then, exist an unconscious passive attitude. The 
experiment allows approach to the unconscious to this extent. 

If the process of interpretation of the record is reversed so that the re- 
cord is approached after knowing the results of the analysis the result Is the 
following, written by Dr Oberholzer who followed this method: 

The flexion kinaesthesias reveal the deepest experience-reaction adjustment In the 
patient. They are the expression of his passivity and of the feminine part of his sexuality. 
This passivity is the result of a turning against his own person l which took place early in 
his life and which was due to an originally sadistic urge. Later the passivity was combined 
with the sex instincts to produce the feminine attitude. The original sadism is found not 
only in traits of cruelty in his dreams but also made itself felt early, and later as well, in 
his life in occasional outbursts during which the patient would strike out blindly, afterward 
being unable to understand the flaring up of his temper. The sadistic tendency was also 
expressed in occasional lack of consideration bordering on brutality in the pursuit of his 
business aims and interests, or in sudden outbursts of anger against his subordinates in 
which his master-nature comes to the fore; this in contrast to his habitually strong self- 
control and his conscious dislike of all uncouth instincts, A part of his personality was not 
mastered during the transition into passivity and masochistic sufferance, and this part gave 

1 Freud, Triebe und Triebschieksale. Internal. Zeitschr. f. Psychoanalyse, 1915. 



208 

rise, In the prepubertal period to an initial compulsion neurosis which took the form of 
obsessional thinking; in earlier childhood this part of the personality had given rise t 
phantasies of a risler. The initial neurosis dictated the later obsessional character of 

the patlcni who tried to regulate his elementary instinctive functions. 

The If srries it, therefore, what Is lived >. I purposrly aY^id saying ^experienced* in 
order not 10 Imply that the patient knows the nature of this experience. M is the cm- 
pultioE determining what is lived, and how it is lived. The patient sacrificed eight years 
of hi* life in what lie was a futile battle to his father's business. It wm a 

struggle against unfavorable circumstances which included the brutal selfishness of Ms 

own broihers* One of these brothers, distinguished because of beautiful, strong teeth, 
constantly appeared in the patient's dreams as a father substitute. In the face of constant 
disappointments and Jbiiiernesses the patient ^carried the burdens in memory of his father 

because it was his father's wish < for the sake of my father*. After the inevitable 
liquidation of the business which put an end to the eight years of suffering, the neurosis 
broke out, continuing the hammer-blows > of the earlier years. 

The flexion klnacstliegias,, therefore, belong to the deepest unconscious,, and the content 
of them can hardly be called content in the usual sense of the wore!. The proof of this 
wbich be disclosed IE this case, when considered in Yiew of and in connection with 

the symptom values of other factors, becomes most remarkable; the relation of the kin- 
aetthesias to the unconscious should occupy the first place in any theoretical foundation 
attempted! in dealing with the findings of the experiments 

The kinaestliesias, when they become the determinants of the interpreta- 
tion of the record m they have in this case, do actually bring unconscious 
things to the light of day; the analysis establishes the fact that they must 
stand In the closest relation to what is generally spoken of as the unconscious. 
The passive nature of the patient demonstrated by the analysis explains, on 
the basis of information from within the patient himself, other traits which 
appeared in the psyehograra in the course of the interpretation. These are 
the ascetic tendencies in the patient's living, the ideas of insufficiency, and 
his distrust of himself, particularly with regard to his own productivity. We 
are able to understand to some extent the source of the contradictions in his 
make-up. 

b)The C Interpretations. 

In the Psychodiagnostic 1 was able to defend the view that the color 
interpretations, especially the Cs and CF's, are in some way related to ego- 
centric affectivity, to unmodified, almost instinctive affectivity. On the other 
hand, the content and the relation of the content to the general pattern re- 
mained obscure for a long time, although it was obvious that the content 
could not be independent of the accompanying affective tone. If a subject 
produces a series of genuine C interpretations (representative of impulsive 
affect) and the content of these interpretations turns ever again to the topic 
of fire and blood, it must be assumed that the strong affects of his psyche 
must have something to do with fire and blood, and that fire and blood have 
some relation to his powerful emotions. It will also make a difference whe- 
ther a patient interprets the red section of a plate as an open wound, whe- 



209 

ther he sees rose petals, or syrup, or a of The of 

much the content of such interpretations to the 

much to the leeoescious cannot be decided except In some 
One such case was that of the politician, the world builder, above* 

He Interpreted the center of the earth, chaos, the inside of the earth, as C res- 
ponses; on the kinaeslhetic side there are the ^ods. From we 
can deduce that he himself wants to construct the earth anew But Is 
only the manifest content; the latent content Indicates something else. These 
gigantic gods are in an extraordinary position- the klnaesthetic interpreta- 
tion gives the picture of the foetal position. The core interior of the 
earth may, then signify something quite different, perhaps the mother's womb. 
This would mean that the color responses extend much more deeply into 
the complexes than at first appeared and that the egocentric affectivity 
actually has its source in the most highly emotionally toned psychisms. Evid- 
ently the content of the color interpretations is to be evaluated like the mani- 
fest content in dream interpretation where the latent content is brought to 
light only in dream analysis. 

How does this problem appear when approached in the light of the 
analysis? I quote Dr. Oberholzer again: 

Smoke and fire form A part o the childhood experiences of the patient. The forge, 
which at that time was still a part of his father's workshop, is linked into his most im- 
portant childhood memories of his father. He, the father, was a master at tbe art of 
tempering, a special process to which he owed hi& reputation; these facts were known to 
the patient early in life. Even when he was hardly able to climb the steps he would slip 
into the shop again and again, or, if he were put out, would look in longingly for hours 
at a time regardless of wind or weather. This workshop, as well as the large factory with 
machines and parts of machines which grew out of it later on, are the most frequently 
occurring elements in the manifest content of the patient's dreams. These furnished im- 
portant sexual symbols from which, in the course of the analysis, it was possible to draw 
conclusions regarding his early sexual curiosity directed toward his parents and the feminine 
adjustment to his father. In one such dream he was watching a big boiler Being brought 
into its foundation under a scaffold; in another, he saw cast iron standards being lowered 
into round concreted holes. 

The content of the color interpretations is, then a part of the conscious symbolic 
material which the analysis worked with as it proceeded, the true significance and the 
relationships of these symbols being unknown to the patient. It is to be expected that with 
a larger number of C responses a correspondingly larger part of the symbolic material 
could be eli cited. 

Here again we have proof furnished by the analysis. If during dream 
analyses motifs appear which are reminiscent of the content of color inter- 
pretations we shall be able to ascribe special significance to them, and give 
them a central position in the analysis. 

c) The Abstract Interpretations. 

The abstract responses are not actually form interpretations but originate 
in the fact that the picture has a central part, a middle area or a line in the 

Rorschaefo, Psycfaodiagnostics. 14* 



210 

middle. There is no of with a \isual as in 

other a description of an produced by 

the In to it. The descriptive 

by closely related to the 

we are is the first in the column of 

the where the are listed. Such descriptions are 

the of of repression, a demonstration of nega- 

tion. The purely carry similar Implications, although 

reveal a strongly affectively toned application to the task. 

Let as up all the interpretations built up on the theme of the central 

line: 

First in Plate I, the bony structures, then the ^skeleton in a wrappings. 
Interpretations of bones and skeletons, etc., are found chiefly in neurotics 
who complain of inner emptiness, of loneliness, of {emotional) coldness* 
Shroudings, coverings ancl masquerades mot infrequently reveal a tendency 
to conceal something. We have already seen this tendency to depressive feel- 
of emptiness and want of internal harmony occurring in conjunction 
with a tendency to conceal this depressive feature in the chiaroscuro inter- 
pretations. The skeleton in the wrapping already mentioned is such a chia- 
roscuro interpretation. Thus in Plate I the mifl-line is somewhat associated 
with affective poverty and depression with concomitant wish to conceal and 
dissimulate the affective situation in question. 

In the second plate, the mid-line interpretation is a landscape seen in 
perspective; this is a chiaroscuro response also ? but it is, as it were, a positive, 
constructive one. With some justification we can say that the affect described 
above is sublimated in this interpretation. However, there follows the inter- 
pretation a well of fire* in this same plate; this is a C response which is 
flung out with what is almost the force of an intuition. 

Abstract responses first appear in the third plate: tfae power which 
separates the two figures and won't allow them to come together^. In it the 
mention of two movement-motifs, a centripetal and a centrifugal, illustrates 
the ambivalence associated with the mid-line. 

In the fourth plate there is again a cloud of smoke, and then the impres- 
sion of the power in the middle to which everything clings. In the fifth plate 
there is the half-descriptive interpretation, the symmetrical body. In the 
sixth, a purely descriptive response, the symmetrical figure with the marked 
central axis around which everything is arranged. This is followed by another 
abstract interpretation, that concerned with the white line in the middle, the 
line of force about which everything revolves^. In the seventh plate there is 
first the section of the skeleton; there follows another response of fire and 
smoke with emphasis on the center. The eighth plate yields the response, a 
part of a skeleton*. The response to the ninth plate is a geographic inter- 
pretation belonging to the chiaroscuro type, and, secondly, the half-descrip- 



_ *>1 1 

*-> 1 i "~ 

five the the center,, To the 

he a in a park", a 

There follow a few at the hut lie 

the mid-line In Interpreting the by the 

barking dogs. 

We see also that the Interpretations with the are con- 

ditioned by the widest variation of factors. There are descriptive 
responses, color responses of the most as well as the type 

(C and FC), and, most important, chiaroscuro answers. Tlicsr 
demonstrate the two fundamental affective In the patient, the 
adaption and the egocentricity. Both are bound to the mill-line in 
as well as position, the former in the Interpretations of of the skeleton 

and the path In the park, the latter in those with the well of fire>>. 

The ambivalence associated with the mid-line Is also demonstrated in 
opposing directions of the movement In Plate III. In these Interpretations 
associated with the mid-line, there Is a tendency to give space Dd (un- 

usual small detail) responses. The W\ especially those which are construc- 
tive, also belong to the mid-line group of responses. The normal D response, 
the inbetween factor In the experience type, Is crowded out by the W*s, 
the S's and the Dd's. This finding Is In agreement with the absence of the 
moderating values in affectivity, the FC responses which represent the free 
play of affective Intercourse with the environment. All the complex reac- 
tions, are summarized in the mid-line interpretations; It is here that all the 
contradictions (of personality) are knotted together. The most powerful af- 
fect, finding its expression in the CF responses, and the most severe coarta* 
tion and affective repression, expressed In the purely descriptive responses, 
are both associated with the mid-line of the plates. All this presents a mass 
of alternatives and contrasts which appears quite incapable of analysis; the 
solution of the problem probably lies in the abstract interpretations for these 
are the most extraordinary and individual responses. 

In connection with these abstract interpretations the question of the re- 
lation of the mid-line to the surrounding parts is always cropping up; it is 
always the mid-line which holds everything to it, etc. The mid-line appears 
to attract the patient's attention with a sort of magical power. Suppose we 
visualize this relationship kinaesthetically; does the mid-line hold onto the 
other parts, or do the surrounding parts of the figure actively grasp the mid- 
line? It is possible to answer this question by considering the genuine kin- 
aestheslas; none of these deal with the mid-line but always with lateral parts 
witness the clowns, the dandies, the little men taking hold of the red parts 
of the figure all exhibit movement toward the center. This implies that the 
subject considered the lateral parts those which were actively clinging. The 
wording of the abstract interpretations bears this out: the <cpowerful in the 
middle to which everything Is attached, the line of force about which every- 



thing is the middle which It all revolves. If any move- 

ment is in connection* it is obviously not the mid-line which 

holds actively to the surrounding parts, but the surrounding parts which hold 
on to the mid-line, reach for the mid-line, strive to strengthen their grip on 
the mid-line. The mid-line is the abstract, magical power which, supplies a 
secure place to hold to* These deductions reiterate statements already found 
In the psycho-gram, namely, that the subject shows a relative incapacity to 
maintain a on a central thought and that lie is passively orientated and 

an active central force or power. 

This is as much as can be gathered from the test. The analysis should 
clarify matters considerably, and it actually does so with startling success. 
I quote Dr. Oberholzer^s statements regarding the abstract interpretations: 

In these interpretation*, everything is concerned with power a centra! line of power, 
a middle point of power, a center of power. The same situation exists in the analysis. The 
central point was the father and the father was the power; this was true also in the 
symbolism of his dreams. In one of these dreams the father was symbolized as the queen 
mat who maintains the integrity of the ant state. In the dretm the queen ant stings the 
patient on the finger. It will be recalled that after the father's death this son tried vainly 
to prevent the collapse of the estite. In another dream he thought that he awoke during 
the night and saw the stars following their courses and he drew their courses which were 
curves passing through a central point. This dream recalled to him the first period of in- 
somnia which preceded the development of the obsessional phenomena mentioned above 
and which had its onset after he had seen the performance of two tight-rope walkers. 
Later the associations led to a period as a boy of three to five years when there was the 
active desire to see the father's spitzli (a child's term for the genitalia) and when he 
would frequently awake in terror during the night. In the analysis he described the 
power as stocky in form so that I was able to say quite definitely that his father had 
been a stocky, thick-set man, 

In this connection I must return to the first interpretation for the first 
colored plate, Plate VIII. The subject interpreted the red figures at the sides 
as a sort of animal, bears or dogs, described as having a thick-set body and 
short Iegs* From what has been said above, it can be assumed that this is 
not merely a coincidence, more especially since we deal with a red detail of 
the plate. 

Having no knowledge of my deductions, Oberholzer continued: 

The M and G factors are seen concurrently in the abstract responses* The content of 
these it is always the same, this power reveals the nature of the symbolic relation- 
ships of the color response; these relationships are unknown to the patient. We discover 
what he wants to experience. Ultimately it is the desire to experience the power of his 
father's genitalia; this appeared as a wish-fulfillment in many dreams both before and 
during the analysis. 

The introversive and the most strongly affective content are amalgamated in the 
abstract responses, and the flexion kinaesthesias and the abstract responses fit each other 
like a lock and key. The striving of the kinaesthesias to live the content of the abstract 
interpretations is the most profound source of the yearning with which this patient is 
possessed, of his basic depressive and anxious mood, of the habitnal pattern of his affect. 
From this source all that is found in the psychogram originates, the ideas of insufficiency, 



213 

the sense of internal disunion, the inability to control and his 

being; it is the source of the yearning for peace, for a to to, for 

unity within himself** 

The experiment has shown, then, the power Is 

mentioned in the abstract interpretations is the 

longs to possess for himself and that it carries the affect with it; It 

Is, so to speak, the object and goal of the {anaesthesias. Furthermore, it has 
been discovered that the adaption to this power Is a one thr 

unconscious seeks support from this power. Further, power actually 

exercises a fort of magical Influence by means of the unconscious affective 
control and signifies a kind of center In the patient's life; at the time, 

however, in his deepest unconscious he does not wish to control this power 
actively, bat wants to suffer passively under It. The analysis has only to 
substitute the real object, and it can be stated definitely that this power is 
the father. This key opens a number of paths at once. The most unconscious 
attitudes are now apparent. With the discovery of a fundamental attitude so 
pregnant with possibilities one can probably offer a prognosis for the analysis: 
if this power can also signify the analyst, then a transference must work 
miracles In the case. 

This was actually the situation here. The patient hacl certain hysterical 
symptoms consisting in periodic violent attacks of dizziness leading to falls, 
which, at their zenith, were accompanied by vomitting, diarrhoea, and com- 
plete deafness In the left ear. The presence of hysterical symptoms can be 
read from the record of the test. Dr. Oberholzer reports that these paroxysms 
stopped after the first analytic period and recurred only once again and in 
a much later phase of the analysis in a serious attack. At this time the growth 
of the transference out of the deep, unconscious fundamental adjustment was 
under consideration. The patient had been paying his tribute to this funda- 
mental attitude by these attacks of dizziness and left ear deafness ever since 
the liquidation of his father's business. The left side, as is so often the case, 
proves to be feminine and the fact that his mother was hard of hearing in 
the left ear for as long as he could remember explained the identification of 
the mother in the symptom complex. The fact of the mother's deafness was 
blocked out of the patient's associations for a long time. 

d) The Form Interpretations. 

There remain only the form Interpretations, and these, so far as Dr. Ober- 
holzer could gather from the analytic material, exhibit no important or dis- 
tinct complex relationships. This is theoretically plausible for the form 
interpretations are the work of conciousness; the purer the form, the more 
certain that the response is determined by conscious thinking. The share of 
the unconscious in these interpretations is infinitely less than it is in the 
kinaesthetic and color responses. In practice, however, this is not always true 



214 

for there are neurotics whose complexes* are related to the form Inter- 
pretations. In any case, however, do not appear unmodified 
but are changed; an example Is found in the towers which were Included In 
the form responses of the politician discussed above which probably project 
narcissistic desires. But there are subjects In whom unmistakable signs of 
a complexes > ran be demonstrated on the of the F series. These are ir- 
rational types in whom unconscious material is constaatly seeping into the 
conscious, and subjects who are in especially good humor at the time of the 
test; the good humor dilates the experience type and permits material, other- 
wise repressed^ to get smuggled into consciousness. The stronger the repressions, 
the less capable is the subject of getting into a lighter mood, and the more 
definitely are all complexes excluded from the sphere of form interpretation; 
but then it is more certain that these complexes will be represented in the 
kinaesthetic and color interpretations. 

Thus we see that the kinaeathetic interpretations furnish a deep insight 
into the unconscious. They reveal the unconscious tendencies of the subject, 
the basic attitude, whether it be active or passive. The color interpretations 
are symbols corresponding to the symbols in dreams. In the unconscious they 
represent something else, namely, the latent content, revealing the tremendous 
affective relationships of the latent content. The form responses are usually 
free of complex material; the stronger the repressions in the subject, the 
less complex material in the form responses; the less subjective, the more 
objective they are. The abstract responses furnish relationships between the 
kinaestfaesias and the color responses, between the unconscious attitudes and 
the affect-colored goals of the unconscious. The practical value of this dis- 
cussion can be determined only from a larger material; on the other hand, 
the facts obtained by purely empirical methods should offer significant con- 
tributions to the theory of the relationships between the conscious and the 
unconscious. 



_ fc > 1 "i ^ 

** I J - 

Summary. 

The Formal Psychogram: I as the all 

conclusions drawn from the formal of the protocol 

consideration of the content of the interpretations, 
tive of whether the subject is known to the or not. la 

the formal psychograra reveals that we a in 

aesthenie symptoms must be predominant the is 

introversie than extra tensive, though approaching of 

this latter fact the neurosis must also show compulsion 

mena and at least periodic symptoms of hysteria. The of the 

neurotic character are ideas of insufficiency, feeling of inner disharmony, of 
inability to integrate himself, brooding about himself, distrust of his ability 
to produce, ambivalence, vacillation between broad-mindedness and pedantry* 
impulsiveness and passion which alternate with scrupulousness timid, 

depressive attitudes, a tendency to autistic fantasies and inferences, especially 
autistic systematizalions, and finally, a tendency to asceticism inability 

to make decisions. The form of the special body symptoms cannot be deter- 
mined from the record. 

Aside from the neurosis other traits were found, namely, good intelli- 
gence, original thinking, particularly concrete thinking, and a weakness in the 
field of abstract thinking. There was a significant anlage for construc- 
tive thought processes and and the two are not the same thing a talent 
for construction though there was little combinatory imagination. The psycho- 
gram also revealed a marked ability to apply himself and a tendency to 
neglect the essential and practical in order to construct large systems or, in 
contrast, to get hung up on small details. On the whole, the capacity for 
sharing common mode of perceiving is reduced; there are individual peculiari- 
ties, and a tendency to be seclosive. There is a reduction in the freedom of 
affective adaptions; there are flections of affect between egocentric moods 
and feelings of oppression, depression and anxiety. It might be said that 
the basic principles of his adaptability are expressed in the chiaroscuro res- 
ponses. The whole record, became of the compulsive tone throughout, indi- 
cates a rather obsessional fundamentally in thinking existing at the same 
time with a sort of mild fanaticism, or at least a certain zeal in the defense 
of basic principles. This conception has been expressed in the discussion of 
the programmatic nature of his thinking already referred to. 

The Comparison of the Formal Psychogram and the Content: The experi- 
ment alone allows the conclusion that the patient's unconscious expectancy 
is that he will be passive in the experiences that come to him. From the color 
responses we conclude that there are powerful, affect-charged complexes 
which must be repressed. From the abstract interpretations and their relation 
to the kinaesthesias, it can be concluded that the unconscious is seeking a 



_ 216 

power to cling 10. From the relationship of this last fact to the color res- 
ponses, il can be stated that this power must be expressed symbolically in 
the content of the color responses. These conclusions are fundamentally 
<* formal , and arise out of a comparison of the factors and content of the 
Interpretations. The psychoanalytical conclusions serve to complete the 
formal psychogram with a few words. The abstract interpretations represent 
the desires of the patient, desires he wishes to llve. The power referred to 
In these responses is the goal of the passive attitude, the power of the father 
which he unconsciously longs to experience. This is Indicated in the color 
responses where the power Is symbolic of the father and his force. The 
neurosis results from the conflict of this unconscious longing and the conscious 
repression of it. We do not know what earlier and more primitive attitudes 
and tendencies may have played a role In the production of the neurosis. 



Publications 

of Hermann Rorschach. 



1) Cber Reflexhaliuziiiditioiiett und verwaiidte Ersrheinangen** (Ztschr. L Neurol. 1912). 

2) Pferdediebstahl im Dammerzustand^ (Arch. f. Krimlnalaiitiir>p01ogie uud Kriminaiifttik* 
lid. 19, 1912). 

3) .iReflexhalluzhiatioueu uiul Symboliko (Zentralblatt f. Psychoanalytic, 1912). 

4) <Em Beibpicl von misslun^euer Siiblimlerang mid ein Fall von Namenvcrgessen > |Zen- 
tralblatt f. Pycboanalyj.e. 1912). 

5) ^Zitr Pathologie uiul Operabilitat <ler Twmoren !er Zirb^ldrube % (Bcltrage aur klinssclien 
Ghmirgie, 1 91 3). 

6) 0ber die Wahl de*. Freundeb bcim IN enrol ikcr-> (Zentralbl. f. Psychoanalyse, 1913), 

7) <t Analyse einer hchizopbreneu Zeichnung % (Zeutraibl. f. Ps^cliodiialys, 1913). 

8) .Analytische Romerkuiigen ubtr dam Gemalde eines Scbixophrenea -> (Zentralblatt f. 
Pbychoaiialyse, 1913). 

9) w Ahsoziatiotiscxpcritiicnt. freies Assoziieren und Hypnose Im Dienst der Hcbnng eincr 
Aninesie^ (Corr.-BI. f. Schweixer Ar7te, 1917). 

10} Einiges SIber schweizeriscbe Sektcn und Sektengrundern (Schweiz. Arch. f. Nenr. u. 
Pbychiatrie, 1917). 

11) uWciteres fiber schweizerihcbe Sektenbildttngen (Schweiz. Arch. L Nnr. u. Psyehiatrle, 
1919). 

12) Mord aus Abcrglaubeir> (Schweiz. Volkbkunde, 1920). 

13) Psycbodiagnostik, Bern 1921. 

14) <.Znr Answertuiig deft Formdeutversuchu fur die Psychoanalyse* (Zschr. L Neurol. 1923). 
Posthiini hcrausgegeben von Dr. E. Oberholzer. 

15) ^Zwei schweizcrische Sektcnstifter- (Biuggeli end Unternahrer), Imago XIII. Sonderheft. 
Intemat. Psycboaualyt. Verlag 1927. Posthura herausgegeben. 



218 



of the 

on the Rorsdiach Method. 
(To January, 1949.) 



1. Abbott, W. IX, B^ F. O., otf Nosik, W. A,: Subdural Hematoma and Effusion as a 

Result of Injuries. J. Amer. Med. Assn., 1943, 121, 739-V741, 

2. Abel, T. M.: The Rorschacfi test and school success among mental defectives. Rorsch. 

Res. Exch. IX, 3, 1945, 105110. 

3. Group Rorschach testing In a vocational high school Rorsch. Res. Exch. IX, 4, 

1945, 178188. 

4. Piotrow$ki, Z* A,, and Stone, G.: Responses of Negro and White Morons to the 

Rorschaeh Test Amer. J. Ment. Del, 1944, 48, 258257. 

5. Affuiar, W. E. de: (Possibilities of the clinical application of the psychological Ror- 

schach method). Rev. Neurol. Sao Paulo, 1935, 1, 44754 (Portuguese). 
d. (Application of the Rorschaeh psychological test in forensic psychopathology). 
Med. -Leg. e CrimfnoL, Sao Paulo, 1985, 6, 6263. 

7. Alliez* J., et Ja,mr 9 J.-M.: Test de Rorschach et orientation profes&i<mnelle. Ann. md.- 

psychol., 1945, M. 1, S. 416. 

8. Andresen, H.: Ober die Aoffassung diffus optischer Eindrilcke; ein Beitrag zur Be- 

dingungserforschung der Leistungsvollzfige belm Rorschach Test. Z. Psycho!., 
1941, 150, &-91. 

9. (Anon.) A review of Rorschach scoring samples. Rorschach Res. Exch., 1936 1937, 

1, 94102. 

10. Clinical validation of a. Rorschach interpretation: The case of Lillian K; IV. 

Comparison between Rorschach interpretation and clinical findings. Rorsch. Res. 
Exch. II, 4, 1988, 162163. 

11. Foreword to Volume I. Rorsch. Res. Exch. I, 1, 1936. 

12. Hilfstabellen zum Rorschachschen Formdeutversuch. Psychotechnique Institute 

of Zurich. 

IB. Liste d'interpr&ations-type (en fran^ais) . . . de Rorschach et de ses disciples. 
En vente an Secretariat de Flnstitut J. J. Rousseau, Palais Wilson, Genfeve. 

14. List of fellows and members as of April 30, 1943. Rorsch. Res. Exch. VII, 3, 1943, 

124129. 

15. List of members and fellows of the Rorschach Institute, Inc. as of June 1946. 

Rorsch. Res. Exch. X, 2, 1946, 7& 85. 

16. Apfeldorf, M.: Rorschach theory and psychoanalytic theory. Rorsch. Res. Exch. VIII, 

4, 1944, 189191. 

17. Apolczyn, L.: Metoda Rorschacha: technika exsperymentow. (Rorschach's method; 

experimental technique.) Psychol. wychow., 193839, 11, 2737; 5366. Psychol. 
Abstr., 1939, 3745. 



18. Arluck, B* W.; A study of epileptic* 8 * an*i nor- 

Rorschach Res, Kick, 4, 154156. 

19. Aubrun, W.: L'gtat des (The Is ?a?k3nonV 

disease.) Paris: Balillere, 1937, Pp. 156, 

20. Mnziger: Die Frage der Schizophrenia bei der Unter- 

nlhrera. Z. Neur. 110. 1927. 

21. Pearce: Etude des types psychologiques an moyen d*$ Librairie Lip- 
schutz, Paris, Pp. 204. 

23. Baker, E.: Personality Changes ia Adolescence as Revealed by the 

Psychol. Bull, 1941, 38, 705 (Abstr.K 

24. BolinsJey, B.: A note on the use of the Rorschach in the selection of 

personnel. Rorsch. Res. Exch. VIII, 4, 1944, 184188. 

25. The Multiple Choice Group Rorschach Test as a Means 0! Screening Applicants 

for Jobs. J. Psychol., 1945, 19, 203208. 

26. Barison, Ferdlnando: II fattore tempo nel reattivo di Rorschach. Ri\. tli p?Ieol ? 1940, 

Bd. 36, S. 21 

27. II reattivo di Rorschach in 74 fanciulli ferraresi di 9 15 anni. Arch* Pncol. NeuroL 

Psyehiat, 1940, 2, 177. 

28. Barrera, S. E.: Introductory remarks to the panel discussion on personality studies in 

the convulsive states. Rorsch. Res. Exeh. IV, 4, 1940, 152453. 

20. Barry, H.: (Ed.) The significance of the Rorschach method for consulting psychology: 
A. Author's abstracts of the contributions to the round-table conference at the 
Eighth Annual Meeting of the Association of Consulting Psychologists. Rorsch. 
Res. Exch. I, 5, 1937, 157164. 

30. and Sender, S.: The significance of the Rorschach method for consulting psycho- 

logy. Rorschach Res. Exch., 193& 37, 1, 157167. 

31. BaumgaTtener-Tmmer, P.; Der Rorschach-Test ira Lichte der experlmentellen Psycho- 

logic (italienisch). Arch, di psicol, neural, e psichiat., 1946, Bd. 7, S. 135. 

32. Zur Geschichte des Rorschachtestes. Schweiz. Arch. f. Neurol. u. Psychiat., 19*12, 

Bd. 50, 8.1. 

33. Bayer, K. P.: Bedeutung des> Rorschachversuches fllr die Psychiatrie. Allg. Zeitschr. 

f. Psj chiat, 1943, Bd. 122, S. 1. 

34. Beck, 5. J.; Autism in Rorschach scoring: a feeling comment. Character & Pern, 1936, 

5, 8385. 

35. Beck, S. J.: Configurational Tendencies in Roischach Responses. Psychol. Bull. 1932, 

XXX. p. 632. 

36. Effects of Shock Therapy on Peiaonality. as Shown by the Rorschach Test. Arch. 

Neurol. Psychiat, 1943 ; 50, 483484 (Abstr.). 

37. -- Introduction to the Rorschach Method. A manual of personality study. With a 

Preface by F. L. Wells. Monograph No. I of the American Orthopsyehiatric Asso- 
ciation, 1937. Set up and printed by the George Banta Publishing Company 
Menasha, Wisconsin. 

38. Personality diagnosis by means of the Rorschach test. Amer, J. Orthopsychiatry 

1930. 

39. - Personality structure in schizophienia: a Rorschach investigation in 81 patients 

and 64 controls. Nerv. ment. Die. Monopv, 1938, No. 63, Pp. IX & 88. 



- . 22(1 - 

40. Problems of further research In the Rorschach Amer. J. Orthopsychiatry 3. 

1935. 

41. - Pft> chologica! processes in Rorschacli findings. J. abnorm. a. me. PsychoL 31. 1987. 
42* Rorschach'* Test, Vol. I: Processes. New York; Grune & Straiten, Inc.; 

1944. Pp. 223 

43. Rorschach'g Test Vol. II: A Variety of Personality Pictures. New York: Grune 

& Stratton, Inc. 1945, Pp. 402. 

44. Some present research problems, Rorschach Res. Exch., 1937, 2, 15 22. 

45. - Some recent Rorschach problems. Borsch. Res. Exch. II, 1 Sept. 1937, 1522. 

46. Sources of error in Rorschach test procedures. PsychoL Bull. 1940, 37, 516 517. 

47. Stability of the Personality Structure. PsychoL Bull, 1942, 39, 512 (abstr.). 

48. The Rorschach Experiment: Progress and Problems. Amer. J. Orthopsy., 1945, 

15, 520524. 

49. The Rorschach method and the organisation of personality. I. Basic processes. 

Amer. J. Orthopsychiatry 8. 1933. 

50. The Horschach method and the organisation of personality. II. Balance in per- 

sonality. Amer. J. Psycli. 18, 1933. 

51. The Rorschaeb method and personality organisation. III. The psychological and 

the social personality. Amer. J. Orthopsychiatry 4. 1934. 

52. - The Rorsehach test as applied to a feebleminded group. Arch, of psychology, 1932. 
53 The Rorschach Test in a Case of Character Neurosis. Araer. J. Orthopsy., 1944, 

14, 2,% 236, 

54. The Rorschach Test in Men Discharged from the Armed Forces. War Psychiatry. 

Proceedings of the Second Brief Psychotherapy Council. Chicago: Institute for 
Psychoanalysis; 1944. Pp. 55. 

55. The Rorschach test in problem children. Amer. J. Orthopsychiat, 1931, 1, 501509. 

56. The Rorschach Test in Psychopathology. J. Consult. Psycho!., 1943, 7, 103111. 

57. Thoughts on an impending anniversary. Amer. J. Orthopsychiat, 1939, 9, 806 808. 

58. Behn-Eschenburg: Psychische SchiUeruntersuchungen mit dem Formdeutversuch. 

Bern und Leipzig 1921. 

59. Benjamin, J. D.: Discussion on Some recent Rorschach problems*. Rorschach Res. 

Exch., 1937, 2, 4648. 

60. & Franklin G. Ebaugh: The diagnostic validity of the Rorschach test (93. ann. 

meet, of the Americ. Psychiatr. Assoc. Pittsburgh, 10. 14. V. 1937). Amer. J. 
Psychiatry 94 (1938). 

61. Benton, A. L.: Rorschach Performances of Suspected Malingerers. J. Abnorm. Soc. 

PsychoL, 1945, 40, 9496. 

62. Bergmann, M.S.: Homosexuality on the Rorschach Test. BulL Menninger Clin.,"1945, 

9, 78-83. 

63. Bifisch, H*: Die Technik der Charakterbeurteilung. Industr. Psychotechn., 1934, 11, 

289302. 

64. Bigelow, R. Barry: The evaluation of aptitude for flight training: the Rorschach 

method as a possible aid. J. of Aviation Medicine, Dec. 1940. 

65. Billig, 0.: The Rorschach Test; an Important Aid in the Personality Diagnosis. N. C. 

Med. J., 1943, 4, 4650. 

66. and Sullivan, D. J.; Personality Structure and Prognosis of Alcohol Addiction: 

a Rorschach Study. Quart. J. Stud, Alcohol, 1943, 3, 554573. 



-- 221 

67. - find Sullivan, />. J.: Pro^nortK* in Ror^h. Rr?, VL 

3, 1U42, 117- 127. 

f8. Binder, H.: Comments concerning 1 thf* B**rk-KIopfer disnaswon. 
1037, 2, 4344. 

69. - - Pit* Holldunkeldeutuftpen 1151 psychodiagnostischpn Experiment voa Rowharh 

tzutrl* ich Pin Beitratf zur theoretician lies 

Arrh. Neui. 30, 1932. 

70. - Die kliniM'he Bedeutun^ des Ror*rhachst*htn Versuohes. Schweiz. Areh. Neural. 

Psychiat.. 1944, 53. 1229. 

71. - Discussion on S. J. Beck's cSome recent problems*, Kor*ch. Res. Exch. 

II, 2, 1937, 3742. 

72. The <light-dark interpretations In Koischach's experiment Eorsetimcli Res, Exeb, 

1937, 2, 3742. 

73. Blnfucanger: Bemerkun^en zu Hermann Rorsehachb PBychodiapiostik. Internal Z. 

Psyehoannal. 9, 1923. 

74. Bhtsirtinger, W,: Cber den Rorschachschen Formdeutversuch bei akuten Schizophre- 

nien. Schweiz. Areh. Nenrol. Psychiat, 1944, 53, 101121. 

75. Blrzele, K.. Dm Reproduzleren von Bildgestalten als Hilfsmittel zur Ctiar&kterbestini- 

munjr. Industi. Psychotech., 1938, 15, 6578. PsychoL Abstr., 1939, 6466. 
7(5. Blackburn, J. M,: General review: methods of estimating intelligence and personality 
and their applications. J. ment Sci., 1938, 84, 1008-1053. 

77. Bleuler, M : Der Rorschach-Versuch als Unterecheidungsmittel von KoEstitwtloE 

Prozess. Z. Neur. 151. 

78. Der Rot schachsche Formdeutversuch bei Geschwistern. 2. Neur. 118. 

79. Discussion on Beck's 8ome recent Rorschach problems*. Roreek Res. Exch. II, 

2, 1937, 4546. 

80. The Delimitation of influences of environment and heredity oa mental disposi- 

tion. Character and Personality, Vol. I, June 1933. Nr. 4, S. 286. 

81. The shaping of personality by environment and heredity. Character and Per- 

sonality, 1983, 1, 286300. 

82. and R.; Rorschach's Ink-Blot test and Racial Psychologic: Mental Pecularities ol 

Morocans. Character and Personality, Vol. IV. December 1935. No. 2. 

83. and Wertham, Fred.: Inconstancy of the Formal Structure of the Personality. Arch. 

of Neur. and Psychiatry 7. 1932. 

84. Bochner, R. and Halpern, F.: The Clinical Application of the Rorscltacti Test New 

York: Grune & Stratton, Inc. 1945. Pp. 330. 2nd ed. 

85. Bohm, Ewald: Der Rorschach-Test und seine Weiterentwicklunir. Sonderh. Ror- 

schachiana I> d. Schweiz. Zeitschr. f. PsychoL, 1945. 

86. IX Tabellarische Obersicht in Psychodiagnostik von H. Rorschach. S. Aufi, 1987, 

Hans Huber. 

87. Bonnafe, L. et Tosquelles, FT.: Au sujet du test de Rorschach. Ann. m&d.-psychol., 

1944, Bd. I, S. 171. 

88. Booth, 0, .: Comments concerning the Beck-Kiopfer discussion. Borschach Res. 

Exch., 1937, 2,' 4853. 

89. Discussion on S. J. Beck's Some recent Rorschach problems>. Rorschach Res. 

Exch. II, 2, 1937, 4853. 

90. Material for a comparative case study of a chronic arthritis personality: L Psychia- 

tric report. L 2, Nov. 1936, 49. 



i22 - 

91. Objective techniques In personality testmp. Arch. NVunl. Psychiat., 1030, 42, 

514o30. 

92, and chronic J. Nerv. & Ment. !>!>., 1937, to, 637 651 

3, <fi B.: Personality studies In chronic arthiitte. Rorschach Hes, Exch , 
1, 4049. 

94, J. C. C.: (The test In epilepsy;. Neurohiolopa, Pernambuco, 1938, 
1, Psychol. Abstr., 5012. 

95. Psichologisch-charakterologische rntersuchungen feel antisoziaien 

mit Hilfe den Rorschachschen Formdeutversuchs. Zeitschrift f. d. 

fi. Newr. und Psych. Id. 188, H. 8/4, 1981, S. 544. 
n d Franz; Zm Problem \on Konstitution und Prozess in 

der Schizophrenic auf Orund de Rorschach-Versuches. Schw. Aich. Neur. 45, 1940. 
97. Born*, ft*.: La Science du caractere. Delachaux et Niestte 1931. 
8. fk.: Der Rorsehachversuch bei verochiedenen Formen von Epllepsie. Schweiz. 

Arch. Neur. 37 
99. P. If., irnrf WaLworth, B. M.: Emotionality Test Scores of Delinquent anil 

Noa-Dellnciient Girls. J. Abeorm. Soc. Psychol., 1948, 38, 8792. 

100. K. P., lion, E. G., and Corngan, H.G.; The use of the Rorschach In a 
psychiatric study of promiscuous girls. Rorsch. Res. Exch. X, 3, 1946, 105110. 

101. S!li?io; Sulla demeaza postencefalitica. II metodo dl Borsehach applicato 
allo studio del parkinsonismo postencefalitico. Arch. 41 psicoh, 1941, Bd. 2, 8. 842. 

102. T.: till kannedomen om den kroppsli^a och psyckiska utreekllngen 
feos tsillingar, Flnska Ltk, Sftllsk. Hand!., 1935, 77, 195265. 

103. Broft, N.: Nofiftt om det Rorsehachske formtydningsforsog og dets praktiske anven- 

delse. %eskr. Laeg:., 1938, 100, 534-537. 

104. Braumkamen, N.: L^tude exp&nmentate du catact^re. M6tfiodes et r&ultats. Uccle- 

Brassels; Centre Nat. Edue., 1937, Pp. 198. 

105. Brendgen, F.: Cber den Wert der Tiefenpsychologle far die Bes uf sberatung. Z. ges. 

NeuPoL'Psychiat, 1938, 161, 496-511. 

IDS. Brenman, M. f and Reickard, S.; Use of the Rorschach Test in the Prediction of Hypno- 
tizability. Bull. Menninger CIIn., 1943, 7, 183187. 

107. Brosin, H. W. and Fromm, E. 0.: Rorschach and color blindness. Rorschach Res. 

Exch., 1940, 4, 3970. 

108. Some principles of Gestalt psychology in the Rorschach experiment. Rorsch. Res. 

Exch. VI, 1, 1942, 115. 

109. Brown, R. R.: The Effect of Morphine upon the Rorschach Pattern in Post-Addicts. 

Amer. J. Orthopsy., 1948, IS, SS934B. Also in Psychol. Bull, 1942, 89, 512- -518. 

110. Brown, J. F. & Orbison, W. D,: A program for the experimental psychological in- 

vestigation of convulsion therapy. Bull Menninger Clinic, 1988, 2, 151154. 

111. Bmno, A. M. L; Movimiento Rorschacli no Brasil. An. Paulist de Med. Cir., 1944, 

47, 377401. 

112. Psicograma de Rorschach: Ficha para seu registo. Arq, Poiicia Civil, S. Paulo, 

1942, 4, 185. 

113. Brwfsel, J. A., Grassi, J. K., and Melnicker, A.: The Rorschach Method and Post- 

concussion Syndrome. PsychSat Quart, 1942, 16, 707-743. 

114. Bryn, D.; The problem of human types: comments and an experiment. Character & 

Pers., 1986, 5, 4860. 



--- 223 

115. Buckle, D+F., am! f/>0A\ />. H : Group Keiwkirh method: Twhn^w. Ko^ 

Exch. VII, 4. 1943, 139--16T>. 

116. Buhler, .: Father and w>n. Re?. VII. 4, 194& U.'V-l'W. 

117. B, B., eiwrf Tollman, G.: pait*ins in muJtiplo su**nijt. 

Res. Exch. IX, 3, 1945, ill 121 

118. Bhrger-Prinz: Bumke* Handbueh der (reisteskrankhesttMn. IX. S M. t *.*.*:?. 

119. Bur/, C.: The Subnormal Mind, Oifoid University PITSS, lid P?. ;111, 

120. M.: Historiales clinicos de neurosis obsesiva. rom*J*3on. Arrb. N 
biol., 1934, 14, 927978. 

121. Cameron, D. C.* The Rorscbacb Experiment - X ray of Personality. Dis. N>A. S> t.. 

1942,3,374376. 

122. CantrH, H. Attport: Recent Application of the Stud} of Values. ,1. Abnorm. 

Soc. Psycho!. 1984. 

123. Cardom, FUippo: II test di Rorschach nella dSa|?nostIea psichiatriea. din. I 

Nerv. e lent. Univ. Firenze. Riv. Pat. ncrv. 49 (1937), 

124. Carvalhal Rib$, J.: Pslco-diagnostico de Rorsehacb. Rev. Clin. S. Paulo, 1942, 11, 

3134. 

125. Cavagnac, C.: Psychologische Untersuehungen mittels ties Rorschach-Tept an Schlzo- 

phrenen, die nach der Methode von Fiamberti mit Acetylcholin behandelt m-orden. 
waren (italienisch). Arch, di set. d. eerebrazione e del psiehismu 1948, Bd. 1/2, 
S. 163. Re!.: Ann. m6d.-psychol., 1947, Bd. 2, S. 399. 

126. Cavalcanti Borges, /. C.: Da psleologla de epilepticos genuinos, Respo&tas de cOr 

primaria no pslcodiagnostlco de Rorsehacb. Rev. Med. de Pernambuco. 1936, 6, 
185187. 

127. teste de Rorschach em eplleptieos. Newrobiologla, 1938, 1, 2935. 

128. Cergueira, Luiz: Psicodiagn6stico de Rorschach. Babla-Tip. Moderna, 1945, pap;es 106. 

(Enth&lt 21 Titel der Rorschach-Literatur, die von 1934 1S43 in BrasiIIen er- 
scbieneji 1st) 

120. Challmann, E. C.; The Validity of the Harrower-Erickson Multiple-Choice Test as a 
Screeninp: Device. J. Psychol., 1945, 20, 4148. 

130. Christoffel: Psychoanalyse und Psychiatric. Schweiz. led. Wochenschrift 54. 1924. 

131. Affektivitat und Farben, speziel! Angst und Halbdunkelerscheinungen, Z. Neur. 82, 

1923. 

132. Clapp> H. S.: Clinical validation of a Rorschach interpretation: The case of Lillian K; 

I. Rorschach record. Rorsch. Res. Exch. II, 4, 1938, 153155. 

133. Clardy, E. H.; Goldensohn, L. N., and Lewne, K.: Schizophreniclike Reactions in 

Children: Preliminary Report: Studies by Electroencephalography, Pneuemo- 
encephalography, and Psychological Tests. Psychiat Quart, 1941, 15, 100 116. 

134. Coffin, T. E.: Motivation and stimulus-structuration in the process of suggestion. 

Psychol. Bull, 1939, 36, 662. 

135. Collm, A. G.: Review: European Rorschach findings. Rorsch. Res. Exch. VII, 4, 1943, 

169181. 

136. Collins, L.: Review of K. H. Stauder's Constitution und WesensEnderung der Epi- 

leptiker. Rorsch. Res. Exch. VIII, 1, 1944, 3840. 

137. Cook, P. H.: Mental Structure and Psychological Field: Some Samoan Observations. 

Character and Pers., 1942, 10, 296 30JS. 

138. The application of the Rorschach test to a Bamoan group. Rorsch. Res. Exch. VI, 2 S 

1942, 5160. 



139. Copelman, L. 5.: Psihotiiapno&tictti Rom'hach In lumina aethitatil dlnamiee a 

scoartei ettcbiate. Bucuresti: Soci*tat<*a i ewetari psihologice, 1935, 

Pp. 48. 

140, Cordon, R.G. and Norman: Some Psychological Experiments on Mental Defectives 

in Relation to the Perceptual Configurations mhldi mav underlie Speech, Part. II, 
Biit. J. PsjchoL 1931 XXIII, p. K5II3. 

141. Costa* A.; Le taxole del Rorschach quale mezzo <li ricerca per la psicologia normale 

e patologica. Arch. ital. PsleoU 1939, 17, 1728. 

142, Co?rX Marion: Reporting Group Discussion: What constitutes a single response? 

Rortchach Kes. Exch., 1936, l, 4. 

in. - - The use of the Romchach In schools. Rorseh. Rea. Exch. IX, 3, Sept 1945, 130 133. 
144 _ ( reporter} What constitutes a single response? Rorsch. Res. Exeh. L 1, 1936, 4. 

145. Cranford, V., and Sclif/er, R. F.; rnderstandinjr the Alcohol Patient, Part I. J. Clin. 

Psychopath, anil Psychother., 1944, 6, 323334. 

146, Datta Valla, Amcdco: Ricerche sulla prova di H.Rorschach con particolare riferi- 

mtnto aH'antropoloid* criminale. Areh. di antropol. crim., 1941, Bd. 61, 8. 227. 
1*17, Dashtell, J. F,; Some rapprochements In contemporary psychology. Psychol. Bull, 



148. Dai-Mxon, H, H.: Personality and Economic Background: A Study of Highly Intelligent 

Children. New York: King's Crown Press: 1943. Pp. 189. 
14!l < Klopfer, B.: Rorschach statistics, Part I: Mentally retarded, noimal, and superior 

adults. Rorschach Res. Exch., 193738, 2, 164169. 
15<X Rorschach statistics, Part II: Normal children. Rorschach Res, Exch., 1988, 3, 



151. Day F. 9 Schacktel, Hartoch J. & B.: A Rorschach study of a defective delinquent. 

J. (Vim. Psychopath., 1940, 2, 6279. 
132. De Oliveira, W. L: Psicodiagndstico de Rorschach em epilepticos. Rio de Janeiro: 

Companhia Edstora Americana; 1945. Pp. 93. 

153. Diethelm, 0.: The personality concept in relation to graphology and the Rorschach 

test. Proe, AES. Res. nerv. meat., Dis., 1934, 14, 278286. 

154. Dimmick, G. B.: An application of the Rorschach ink-blot test to three clinical types of 

dementia praecox. J. Psychol, 19351936, 1, 6174. 

155. Drohocki, Z.: Psychologiczne badaoia nad epilepsja pray pomocy metody Rorschacha. 

Nowiny Psychjatryczne, 1928, 1, 32 S3. 

156. Die typologi&che Bedeutung der Orientierung mlttels Farben oder Gestalt Polskie 

Arch. Psychol. 5. 1932. Ref. Zbl. 68, S. 604. 

157. Znaczenie typologiczne orjentacji przypomocy barwy lub ksztaltu. Pol. Arch. 

Psychol, 1982, 5, 406126. 

158. Drape, Detlef: Kritische Gedanken tiber Korschach-Versuch und Handschriftenkunde. 

Arch. f. Psychol, 104 (1939). 

159. Dttbitscher: Die PersOnlichkeitsentwicklung des Schulkindes im Rorschachschen 

Formdeutversuch. Z. Kinderforsch. 41, 1933. 

160. Der Rorschachsche Formdeutversuch bei erwachsenen Psychopathen sowie psycho- 

pathischen und schwachsinnigen Kindern. Z. Neur. 142. 1932. 

161. Der Rorschachsche Formdeutversuch als diagnostisches Hilfsmittel. Z. Neur. 138 

(1932). 

162. Ihiblimau, /.: De quelques liaisons psycho-cliniques dans 3e test de Rorschach. Ann. 

m6d.-pftycfaol., 1944, Bd. 2, S. 581. 



- 225 -- 

163. if ime etude chiffre tin rompoi tement \erbo-moteur i^* t?#t dt R?*r* 

schach. Ann, m&i.-ps.vchoL, 1944 Bd. 2, & 503. 

164. Le test de Rorscharh et le probteme typolopque. Ann, med.-p>ehcL. U*44. BdL f?. 

8. 548, 

165. Le test lie Rorschach, interpretation mthodol0ique. Ann, md.-pA> lii^i, 1044, 

Bd. 2, 8. 502, 

166. Puech et Luquet: Modifications de la structure p&ychologiquf*, 8uhie> par If* t***i 

de Rorschach chez tine obsedee avant et lobotomie. Ann. md.-p$ychol.. 1947, 

Bd. 2, S. 284. 

167. Du Bois, C. and Oberholzer, E.: Rorschacb Tests and Native Personality in Alon 

Dutch East Indies. Trans, N. Y. Acad. Sci 1042, 4, 168110. 

168. Da Bois, C.: The People of Alor; a Social Psychological Study of an 

Island. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press; 1944. Pp. 654. 

169. Due, F. 0., and Wright, M. E.: The use of content analysis in Rorscbach Interpretation: 

I. Differentia! characteristics of male homosexuals. Rorsch. Res, Exeh. IX, 4, 
1943, 169177. 

170. Dunbar, P.: Psychosomatic Diagnosis. New York: Paul B. Hoeber, lee.; 1943. Pp. 741. 

171. Dunmwe, H.: An evaluation of Beck's norms as applied to young children. Psycho!. 

Bull. 36, 629. 

172. Dworetzki, Gertrude: Le test de Rorschach et revolution de la perception. Etude 

exp^rimentale. (Laborat. de PsyChoI. Univ. Gen&ve.) Arch, de PsyehoL Oenf, 27 
(1939). 

173. Etude sur la r^p^tition du test de Rorschaeh. Geneve, m&i 1936. 

174. Earl, C. /. C.; A note on the validity of certain Rorschach symbols. Rorsch. Res, 

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175. Endacott, J. L.: The Results of 100 Male Juvenile Delinquents on the Rorschach Ink 

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184. Ei/rich, M.: Cber Charakter und CharakterverHnderung bei kindlichen und jugend- 

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197. Franco, Franco de: Cento feneiulli Sicilian! di 8 12 anni esaminati col reattivo di 

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198. Verjrleichen Psychologic der Oeschlechter in der Praeadoleszenz mittels der Ror- 

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199. Frank, L. K.: Comments on the proposed standardization of the Rorschach method. 

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201. and Others: Psychosomatic Disturbances in Relation to Personnel Selection. Ann. 

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204. Fucks, Christel: Hohe Intelli|?enz; Versuch ihrer experimentellen Erfassung init dem 

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205. Funkhouser, J. B., and Kettey, D. M.: The Rorschach Ink-Blot Method. Virginia Med. 

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208. Gair, M.: Rorschach characteristics of a p*oup of very superior seven year old 

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209. Gann, E.: Reading Difficulty and Personality Organization. New York: King's Crown 

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210. Gafi2, Elisabeth, und Loosli-Usteri, Morg,: Le test de Rorschach appliquS a 43 gallons 

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211. Gardner, George E.: Rorgchach test replies* anil in 1W) nt;nna3 adult* of 

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212. (iff!, 6' J.; The similarity in Rorschach patterns of criminal psychopath** an -I 

fire-adolescent boys. Korseh. Res. Exch. IX, 4, 1943. 201 -- 

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214. GHbe. P$\ choanal} tiache Ps\ chotechnik. Imago ill 11*24. 

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220. The animal symbol In the Rorsehach test and an animal association test, Rorseh. 

Reh. Exch. IX, I, 1945, 8-2. 

221. The Effects of Early Institutional Care on Adolescent Personality. Child Developni., 

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222. rnitl Klopfrr, B.: Rorsehach characteristics of institution Children*. Rorscli. Re?. 

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224. Goldmann, 0. S., and Bergman, M. S.: A Psychiatric and Rorschaeh Study of Adult 

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223. Goldstein, K.: Personality studies of cases with lesions of the frontal lobes: I. The 

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227. Got or ^ P.: El psieop-ama de Rorsehach en la epilepsia. Rev. clin. espaiu 1946, Bd. iS, 

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228. Gozzano, M.: Relazione sul tema II: Lo studio della personality del delinquente.* 

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230. Graham, V. T.: Psycholopcal studies of hypoglycemia therapy. J. Psychol.,. 1940, 10, 

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i". Guilford. J. /'.; Inhtnmion -- Extroversion. P*\chol. Bull, 1934, 31, 381 3T>4. 

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237. On the value of the Rorschach Test. Reprinted from the Journal of Mental 

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238. (Quotation ftom a letter in Klopfer-Beck discussion.) Rorschach Res. Exch.. 1937, 

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239. Simple psychological data in melancholia. J. lent. SeL, 1936, 82, 649 6T& 

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241. The Rorhchach Tent in Epileptics. Reprinted from the Journal of Mental Science*, 

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242. Weiteie Beobachtungen nach Rorschachs Testmethode. (Bailbrookh. Bath. Eng- 
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243. (MMttman, E.: Attint'ial Psychoses produced b\ mescaline. J. Ment. Sci., 1936 ? 82, 

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245. HackfieM, A. W.: An objective interpretation by means of the Rorschach test of 

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246. Haffter, (',; Der ps> chssehe Infantillsmus im Rorschachtest. Zeitschr. f. d. ges. Neurol. 

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247. HaHoirell* A. /.: Acculturation processes and personality changes as indicated by the 

Rorschach technique. Rorsch. Res. Exch. VI, 2, 1942, 4250. 

248. - Popular responses and cultural differences: An analysis based on frequencies in 

a proup of American Indian subjects. Rorsch. Res. Exch. IX, 4, 1945, 153 168. 

249. Rorschach as an aid in the study of personalities in primitive societies (Abstract). 

Koreeh. Res. Exch. IV, 8, 1940, 106. 

2;K>. ~ The Rorschach Technique in the Study of Personality and Culture. Amer. Anthrop., 
1945, 47, 195210. 

251. The Rorschach test as a tool for investigating cultural variables and individual 

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252. Halvorson, //.; Eine Korrelation zwischen Rorschachtest und Graphologie. Z. f. angew. 

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253. Banfmann, E.: A Study of Personal Patterns in an Intellectual Performance. Character 

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254. - Personal patterns in the process of concept formation. Psychol. Bull., 1940, 37, 

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255. Harrimann, P. L.: Notes on publicity. Rorsch. Res, Exch. VI, 3, 1942, 137. 

256. Review of S. J. Beck's <Rorschaeh's test: I. Basic processes*. Rorsch. Res. Exch. 

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257. Review of R. J. Beck's Rorschach 1 s test: II. A variety of personality pictures*. 

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258. The Rorschach test applied to a group of college students. Amer. J. OrthopsychiaU 

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229 ~ - 

259. Harrison, R.: Thf* Thematic Apperception and Routchach n! fVr^nahtv 

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260. Hanover, (/. X; Medical Technologies' Group Personality E.t;rnate. Canaii. J. 

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261. Cox, K. J.: The Results Obtained from a dumber of Mccupatinna! ioup5ntf* 

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262. Harroirer, M. R. {Harrower-Erickson): A Multiple-Choice Tt^t foi Screen incr Paipos*s 

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263. Clinical Use of Psychological Tests. McGiH J,, 1941, It, 10.V-M*. 

264. Developments of the Rorachach test for application. Rorsch. Res. ExcL 

VIII, 3, 1944, 12r> 140. 

265. Diagnosis and prognostic value of the Eorschaeii Test In neurological 

Psychol. Bull, 1939, 36, 662. 

266. ~- Diagnosis of Psychogenic Factors in Disease by of the Rorschach 

Paychiat. Quart., 1943, 17, 5766. 

267. Bisections for administration of the Rorsehaeh group test. Rontch. Kes. Exch. V, 

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268. Group test techniques: A discussion of an eclectic group method. Rorsch. Res. 

Exch. VI, 4, 1942, 147152. 

269. Large Scale Investigation with the Rorschach Method. J* Consult. Psyetiol, 1943, 

7, 120126. 

270. Personality changes accompanying cerebral lesions: L Rorschaeh studies of 

Patients with cerebral tumors. Aich. Neurol. Psychiat, Chicago, 1940, 43, 859890. 

271. Personality Changes Accompanying Organic Brain Lesions: III. A Study of Pre- 

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272. Personality Testing in Penal Institutions. Probation, 1948, 22, 16. 

273. Psychodiagnostic Inkblots. New York: Grime & Stratton, Inc.; 1945. Manual and 

ten plates. 

274. The contribution of the Rorschach Method to wartime psychological problems. 

J. Ment Sci., 1940, 86, 366 377. 

275. The Patient and His Personality. McGill Med. J., 1941, 11, 2540. 

276. The Rorschach Method in the Study of Personality. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 1943, 

44, 569583. 

277. The Rorschach Test J. Assn. Amer, Med. Coll., 1944, 19, 193200. 

278. __ The Use of the Multiple Choice Test (Eorschach) in the Military Services. War 

Psychiatry. Proceedings of the Second Brief Psychotherapy Council. Chicago: 
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279. The value and limitations of the so-called neurotic signs*. Rorsch. Res. Exch. VI, 

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280. and Miale, F. E.: Peisonality changes accompanying organic Brain Lesions. Pre- 

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281. and Steiner, M. E.: Large Scale Rorschach Techniques; a Manual for the. Group 

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282. Modification of the Rorsehaeh method for use as a jrroup te*t. Hoisch. Res. Exch. 
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583. Washburne, A. C M arf Jacod, J. S. L.; A Preliminary Screening Test for Distur- 
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284. Hens, Phantasieprtifung mit formloafn Klecks^n bei Schulkindern, normaien 

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2B5. Hertz, H,: Binder's responses. Rorschach Res. Exch., 193738. 2, 7989. 

286, HertZj if. H, and Baker, E.: Personality in adolescence as revealed by the 

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287, Herts, R; A comparison of three <blied Rorsehacft analyses. Develop- 

mental Health Inquiry of the Associated Foundations Western Reserve Uni\ ersity 

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238, Comments on the standardization of the Rorschaoh group method. Rorsch. Res. 

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289. Discussion on *Some Recent Rorschach Problems*. Rorschach Res. Exch., 1937 

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2(10. Evaluation of the Ror&chach Method and Its Application to Normal Childhood and 

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291. Frequency Tables to be Used in Scoring, the Rorschach Ink-blot Test. Brash 

Foundation, 1936, Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, Ohio. 

292. Modification of the Rorschach Ink-Blot Test for Large Scale Application. Amen 

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298. On the standardization of the Rorsrchaeh method. Reproduced from the Rorschach 
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294. Percentage charts for use in computing Rorschach scores. Brush Foundation and 

the Department of Psychology, 1940, Western Reserve University. 

295. Personality changes in 35 girls in various stages of pubescent development based 

on the Rorschach Method. Paper read before the Midwestern Psychological Asso- 
ciation, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, April, 1941. 

296. Personality Patterns in Adolescence as Portrayed by the Rorschach Ink-Blot 

Method: III. The Erlebnistypus> (a Normative Study). J. Gen. Psycho!., 1943, 28, 
225276, 

297. Personality Patterns in Adolescence as Portrayed by the Rorschach Ink-Blot 

Method: 1. The Movement Factors. J. Gen. Psycho!., 1942, 27, 119188. 

298. Personality Patterns in Adolescence as Portrayed by the Rorschach Method: 

IV. The Erlebnistypu> (a Typological Study). J. Gen. Psychol., 1943, 29, 345. 

299. Problems on the validity of the Rorschach Method. Amer. J. Orthopsychiat to be 

published; Rorachach Res. Exch., 1940, 104 105-Abstract. 

300. Recording the responses to the Rorschach Ink-blot Test. To be published. 

301. Review of M. R. Harrower-Erickson and M. E. Steiner's Large scale Rorschach 

techniques*. Rorschach Res. Exch. IX, 1, 1945, 4653. 

302. Rorschach Norms for an Adolescent Age-Group. Developmental Health Inquiry 

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308. Rorschach: Twenty years after. Rorsch. Res. Exch. V, 3, 1941, 90129. 



231 

304. Scoiin^r the Rorschach Ink-blot The of (venetir Psychology. 19SR 52. 

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31^5. Seoiinjr the Rorsehacli specific to 

Amer. J. Orthopsychiatry 8, 100121, 

306. Some personality changes In adolescence as b\ the 

Psyehol. Bull, 1940, 87, 515 die-Abstract To be fey far! 

307. The method of administration of the Rorschach ink-blot teat Child 

1986, 7, 237254. 
30& _ The normal details in the Rorschach ink-blot test Res. Exch., 193ft S7 t 

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oU9. The popular> response factor in the Rorschach scoring. J. PsyetioL 6 (l&38i 
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311. The role of the Rorschach method in planning' for treatment Rorsch. Res. Excfa. 

IX, 3, 1945, 184146. 

312. The Rorschach ink-blot test: Historical Summary, Department of Psychology, 

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tin. Vol. 32, No. 1, January 1935. 

313. The Rorschach Method: Science or Mystery. J. Consult. PsyohoU 1943 T 7, 6779. 

314. The scoring of the Rorschach ink-blot method as developed by the Brash Foun- 

dation. Rorsch. Res. Exch. V, 1, 1942, 16 27. 

315. The shading response in the Rorschach ink-blot test: a review of its scoring and 

interpretation. J. gen. Psycho!., 1940, 23, 123167. 
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317. <& Baker, E.: Personality changes in adolescence: Color patterns. Rorachach Res. 

Exch., 1941, 5, 30 Abstract To be published by Carl Murchison. 

318. Personality Patterns in Adolescence as Portrayed by the Rorschach Ink-Blot 

Method: II. The Color Factors. J. Gen. Psychol., 1943, 28, 361. 

317. and Ebert, E. E.: The mental procedure of 6 and 8 year old children as revealed 
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320. & Kennedy, 5.; The M Factor in estimation intelligence. Rorschach Res. Exchange, 

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321. and Rubinstein, Boris E.: A comparison of three blind> Rorschach analyses, Amer. 

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322. <& Wolf son, K: A Rorschach comparison between best and least adjusted girls in a 

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323. Hertzman, M.: A comparison of the individual and group Rorschach tests. Rorsch. 

Res. Exch. VI, 2, 1942, 89108. 

324. Recent research on the group Rorschach test Rorsch. Res. Exch. VII, 1, 1943, 1 6. 

325. and Margulies, E.: Developmental Changes as Reflected in Rorschach Test Res- 

ponses. J. Genet. Psychol., 1943, 62, 189215. 

326. Orlansky, J., and Seitz, C. P.: Personality Organization and Anoxia Tolerance. 

Psychosom. med., 1944, 6, 317331. 

327. and Seitz, C. P.: Rorschach Reactions at High Altitudes. J. Psychol., 1942, 14, 

245-257. 

328. Hirning, L. C.: Case studies in schizophrenia. Rorschach Res. Exch., 1939, 3, 6690. 

329. Report of the Research Committee. Rorsch. Res. Exch., 1942, 6, 177. 



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330. Hitch, K. S.: A Rorschach Diagnosis of Cerebral Arteriosclerosis. Psychiat. Quart, 

194:1 11, 8186. 

331. Rorschach Examinations In Acute Psychiatric Admissions. J. Nerv. Ment. DIs. f 

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382. /Jo*/, H.: Pgeudodebilitrt. Svenska Lakjtrtidn,, 1938, 35, 1521 1.~>83. Psychol. Abst 
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(L (I, awl Hofzman, E. E.: An evaluation of personality analysis in the 
genera! practice of medicine. Rorsch. R^s. Exch. V* 2, 1941, 6771. 

334. Hunt, T.: The application of the Rorschach Te^l and a word-association test to 

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335. Hunter, M.: A study of the Rorschach Erlebnistypus of Comparable White and 

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336. Responses of comparable white and negro adults to the Rorschach test. J. Psychol., 

1937, 3, 173182. 
387, The pratical value of the Rorschach test In a psychological clinic. Anier. J. Ortho- 

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338. Butt, Max L.: The Use of Projective Methods of Peisonality Measurement in Army 

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389. Skor, L: Rationale for routine Rorschach te&ting-the-limits. Rorsch. Res. 

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340. Hylkema, G. W.: De Rorschach-test bij schizophrenen. Ned. Tijdschr. Psychol., 1938, 

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341. Der Rorscliaeh-Test be! Schizophrenen. NederL Tijdschr. Psychol. 6 (1938). 

342. De Veranderingen in het Rorschach Protocol in het Verloop van de moderne Schi- 

zophreoiebehtndeling. Een Casuistisch Onderzoek. Diss. Amsterdam 1938. 

343. Ingebregtsen* E.; Some experimental contributions to the psychology and psycho- 

pathology of stutterers. Amen J. OrthopsycMat, 1936, 6, 630649. 

344. Inti Luna, R.: Ensayo de la praeba de Rorschach en 104 ninos. Rev. Neuro-Psiquiat, 

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345. lonasiu, L., Lungu, C, losit, S., 4 Cupcea* S.: Contributiuni la studiul experimental al 

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346. lonescu-Sisesti, N., & Copelman, L.: Le profit mental des parkinsoniens. Anal. Paihol., 

1938, 5 t 156165. 

347. Copelman t L., and Tumin, L.: Profilul mintal al parkinsonienilor post-encefalitici. 

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348. Jacob, Z.: Some suggestions on the use of content symbolism. Rorsch. Res. Exch. VIII, 

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349. Jacobson, W. T.: A study of personality development in a high school girl. Rorschach 

Res. Exch., 1087, 2, 2335. 

350. Gharaktertypische Arten des Deutens von Helldunkelbildern. (Versuche an dem 

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351. Jacobson, L.: Evaluation of Beck's Rorschach Norm as Applied to Children. Tr. Kansas 

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352. Janis, M. 0., and Janis, L L.: A supplementary test based on free associations to Ror- 

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233 - - 

353. Jarrin, C. /I.: Delito y estructura caraeterolopica. Arrh. i'l-ia*. NVuropfiigusat , 

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234 - 

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532. Oberholzer, E.: Rorschach's Experiment and the Alorese. Chapter 22 in The People 

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539. Ombredane, A., Smr$$ & Canivet: Sur !e m&mnisrae des crises d'angoisse vesperales 

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557. A Rorsehaeh blind analysis of a- compulsive neurotic. Kwart. psychol. 11 (1939). 

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568. Psychological difference between the schizophrenic and organic patient as revealed 

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569. Recent Rorschach literature. Rorschach Res. Exck, 193738, 2, 172175. 

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598. -- The Appraisal of Naval Psychiatric Casualties by the Rorschach Method. Naval 

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M)8. Rochlin, 0. N., and Irvine, K. N.: The Graphic Rorschach Test I. Arch. NeuroU 
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609. Roe, A.: Painting and personality. Rorsch. Res. Exch. X, 3, 1946, 86100. 

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628. The Rorschach Performance with Neurocirculatory Asthenia. Psychosom. Med., 

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629. The uses of the Rorschach method in the Canadian Army. Rorsch. Res. Exch. 

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630. Dancey, T. E. t and Brown, F. T.; Rorschach Scores of Parachute Troopers in 

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645. Saudele 9 R.: A British pair of identical twins reared apart Char. Person, 1934, 

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653. Some Notes on Fire-setters and thejr Rorschach Tests. Journal of Criminal Psycho- 

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Index 



A 



4 (animal responses!, 45 

in artfets, 62 

effect of direction on. 67 

and experience type, 8 

and good humor , 7! 

and intelligence, 61. 62 

interpretation^ u**e In, 1*)2 

M re#pon*efo, relation to, 45, 64 

in normals, 45* 61 

in pathological condition*, 45 

protocolreferenee* to, ITU, 173, 18(1 

and tereotvp\, 62 

summary table of, 46 
Ad (animal part responses), 14, 191 
Abreactiou, 101 
Absurd re-pooses 

protocol examples of. 155-157, 164, 168, 178 
Abstract re*fM>n&e*, 47 

and complexes, 215 

protocol examples of. 157, 206 

s>mptoi value of, 196-199. 209, 210, 216 

Abulia 

and F responses, 24 

protocol example of, 161 

and W- apperceptive type, 41 
Adaptability 

and CF responses, 99 

and chiaroscuro responses. 195 

and experience type. 76, 83, 99 

and FC responses. 34. 99 

and imagery type, 105 

protocol example of. 126 
Affective lability, 34 
Affectivity, 69 

and attention, 69. 70 

definition of, 97 

and xnotility. 80 

and productiveness, 69 
Age^ 

animal responses in, 62 

and arrest of development, 146 

and experience type, 95, 106. Ill, 118. 182 

factors of test in, 66 

and imagery type, 106 

protocol examples of, 140. )46 

and sense hallucinated, 107 

sex, relation to, 96 
Aggression, see Self-assertion 
Ambition, 41. 57, 59 
Ambiequal types 

and age, 9*5, 118 



in catatonic*, H6 

definition of, 81, 182 
factors of tent In. 91), 92 
Ambie<|ua! t%p 

hallucinations la, 107 
imagery type In, 105 
impulhivenef* In, 1 1) I 
neurones in. 117, 195, 200 
and poetic inspiration, 101 
protocol examples of, 154, 166, 215 
sumar\ table of, 91 
and talent, QO, 108, 112 

Ambivalence 

in catatonic, 85 

in obses-he compulsive neurosis, 2110, 210 
Anatomical responses, 14, 45 

in feebleminded, 45 

interpretation of parts of %hole figure, 47 

and occupation, 63 

protocol example of, 174 
Angw, 98 
Anxiety, 102 
Anxiety neurosis 

oligophrenic detail responses in, 40 

protocol example of, 158 

W responses in, 43 
\ppenzelter 

experience type in, 97, 112 

hallucinations in, 107 

talent in, 112 
Apperception, 17 

apperceptive ttpes. 41. 71. 124 

mode of, 36, 181. 190 

sequence of mode of. 43 
Appercepthe type. 41, 60 

effect of direction on, 67 

and experience type, 89 

good, 61 

interpretation, use in, 196 

and mood. 70. 71 

in normals. 43 

protocol example of, 196 

rich, 60 

summary table of, 44 

W type,* 41 

Architectural responses, 201 
Army. 99 
Artists 

animal responses in, 62 

and C responses, 81 

dancers, 108, 109 

English painters, 112 

and form visualization, 31 



253 



imitation in, 1 1 1 

musician**. H$ 

O re*|M>n*e* In, 63 

painters, 36. 107, fttl. 114 
reproduction \>. creation, 114 
W responses* in. ill 

\s-siniilative effort 
in normals*. 17 
in pathological conditions, 17, 23. lit) 



and animal response*. 89, 103 
associative net. 63 

and i ". responses, 33, 34 
control of in depression, 94 

ener^ of-aethin, 58. 59, 89, 103. 154 

and F response-*, 33. 34 

freedom of, 62. 67. 71, 89, 91, 92, 103. 154 

and intelligence. 57, 62 

looseness of. 62. 103 

and O responses. 6 $ 

pattern of, 104 

and selection of engrain, 57 

Attention, see Concentration 

Attitude toward experiment 
and ambition, 41 
in depression, 57 
indolent. 33 
and M and C tvpe*. 80 
and sequence of apperception, 43 
biirrender to ideas, 103 

Vwkvtardness 

and experience type, 78, 81, 105 

introspection, relation to, 79 

B 

Baerwald, 112 
Behavior, 87 
Behn-Ebchenburg. H., 96, 191 

Bernese 

experience type in, 97, 107, 112 
hallucinations in, 107 

talent in, 112 

Black-White interpretations, see Chiaroscuro 

responses 
Bleuier. 11. 17, 20, 69, 97, 101 

Bod> movement of subject 
in M interpretation, 29, 80 
marching, 99 
recording of, 54 

Body position in interpretation 
extension, 151, 146, 206 
flexion, 146, 206-208 
protocol examples of, 146, 151, 206 
symptom value of, 206-208 

Booth, General, 99 



attitude toward te*t, BO 

black color. Jrt 
I! fro! or retujwi nines fr 

am! coartation. 84, f*f) 

coincidence *ith M* 35, 5H. fty, 193, 3^1 

and content. 21^.1 

control te*t for, 55!, 54 
dementia. 117 

effect of direction upon. ^^, HJ. 71 

anil cniotioaal <tabilit\* 31. 7E HO, 5s!$, !IH 

evaluation of. 29, 30, 72 

and experience tjpe, 72, 76, 83, 98. 10H, 

109, 181 

form, relation to, 29-31 

and good humor*, 71 

and inteSIigence,, 58 

interpretation, ue in, 192, 193 

aod intuition, 202 

and mood. 30, 70, 92, 98 

and M regpns, 31, 35, 72, 78, 79, 8:1 

O re^|K>np, relation to, 47 

in pathological condition?, 30, 117 

{perception, relation to, 22 

and i>fi>choanai>siii. 124 

and sex. 96 

tiummar> table of, 32 
C, (pure color regponges), 29-32 

and emotional stability, 31-35, 100, 101, 

195, 208 

interpretation, us<e in, 208, 2)9 

and irritability, 31 

M respOfis.es, relation to, 99 

sjmptom value of, 33, 99, 193 
CF responses 27, 3^ 

and adaptability, 99 

and emotional stability, 33, 39, 99 

M responses, relation to, 35 

protocol examples of, 193, 204, 208, 211 

and sex, 33 

and suggestibility, 33, 100 

and treatment, 124 
Carnival, 99 
Catatonia, 20. 121 ^ 

age of onset, 116 

and complex-determined responses, 122 

contaminated responses in, 38 

coartation in, 84, 85 

dilation in, 84, 85, 90 

experience type in, 74, 76, 92, 97, 107, 

116. 182 

factors of test in, 28, 32, 46, 50, 51, 101 

hallucinations in, 107 

and impulsiveness, 101 

and MC responses, 36 

motor function in, 92 

negativism, 36 

and passive introversion, 82 



254 



protocol example of, 165-166 

recovery fperiodl of* H6, 117 

recwrraoee of content In, 125 
Chiaroscuro responses* 185 

definition of, 195 

interpretation, use in, 198, 200, 210, 215 

protocol examples of, 186491 

symptom value of, 195, 199, 201 
Christian Science, 110 
Clumsy, see Awkwardness 
Coartatlon 

A responses in, 89, 92 

and mgc, 96 

apperceptte type in, 89, 92 

la artists, 107, 108, 110 

ia eatttoniee, 116 

mnct concentration, 98, 102 

definition of, 84, 182 

and fo*m visualization, 90, 92 

imagery type ia, 105 

O re^poiifes in, 88, 92 

in pathological states, 84, 193, 195 

and reading, 118 

sequence of apperception in, 90, 92 

and simple schizophrenia, 116 

and suggestibility, 101 

summary table of, 91 

variability of, 203 

W responses in, 89, 92 
Color 

effect on experience type, 99 

and emotional control, 106, 111, 149 

memory for, 99 

perfereece for, 35, 106, 111 

protocol example of, 149 

use of by poets, 106 
Color blindness, 85, 98 
Color shock, 35, 52, 54 

aad coartation, 84 

ind emotional control, 35 

and emotional suppression, 35, 98, 123, 182 

interpretation, use in, 193 

protocol example of, 134, 142, 189 

and psychoses, 194 
Combining responses, 38 

comfabulatory-combined, 38 

and Dd responses, 60 

and imagination, 102 

and intuition, 202 

M responses, relation to, 64 

protocol examples of, 145, 146, 154, 164 

successive-combinatory, 38 

and will to produce*, 59 
Complexes, 

and A responses, 45 

and abstract interpretations, 197 

and C and M responses, 194 
Complexes (cont.) 

and content, 122, 205, 215 



ami F responses, 214 

aocl intelligence complex, 22, 45, 199 

intuition, 202 
in moron*, 22, 45 

protocol examples of, 131, 19?, 199, 201 
and the unconscious, 206 
Compulsion neurotics 

see Obsessive-compulsive neurotics 

Concentration 

and affecti vit>, 69, 70 

and experience type, 81, 98 

and intelligence, 56, 67, 204 

and sequence of apperception, 61, 67 

and stereotypy, 62 
Confabulation 

and clarity of engrams, 56, 104 

and imagination, 103, 104, 114 

in ICorsakoff psychosis, 20, 76 

and M responses, 29 

and perception of reality, 104 

protocol examples of, 131, 134, 161, 170, 

173, 174, 179, 180 

and W responses, 37, 60 
Consistency, 58 
Constitution 

and A responses, 68 

and C responses, 69, 98 

disciplined thinking, relation to, 87 

and energy of association, 64, 98 

ami experience type, 87 

and M responses, 69 

and sequence of apperception, 61 

and talent, 113 

Contaminated responses, 38, 103, 162-164 
Content, 18, 102, 122 

and A responses, 45 

of abstract responses, 209, 210 

and association tests, 122 

interpretation, use in, 181, 204, 213, 215, 216 

and occupation, 63, 122 

and the subconscious, 122 
Control tests, 21, 22, 29, 53, 54, 67, 68, 105, 

120, 181 

Critical control of interpretation, 57 

D 

D (detail responses), 36-41 

antipathy for, 59 

evaluation of, 39, 192, 196499, 211 

and experience type, 89 

and scoring, 39 
Dd (small detail responses), 36-41 

Do response, 39, 58, 59 

evaluation of, 39 
Dd (small detail responses) 

interpretation, use in, 192, 197, 211 

and psychoanalysis, 124 



- 255 



aadl 8 response*, 39 
and scoring, 39 

Do (oligophrenic detail mponsfs), 39. 404! 

186 

and anxiety, 40 

and compulsive neurosis, 40, 58 
and depression, 40 
and F-raponse*, 4! 
interpretation, use in, 192 
protocol example of. 132 
and psychoanalysis, 124 

DW responses, 38. 39, 96 
Dancers, 108409 
Delirium 

confabulatory-combined responses in, 38 

delirium tremens, 107 

hallucinations in, 107 

M responses, 29, 80 
Delusions 

and experience type, 75, 77 

function of in schizophrenia, 82 

and imagination, 104 

mythical type, 97 

and nationality, 97 

and rapport, 77 
Dementia 

arterioscierotic, 76, 96, 174 

C responses in, 53, 54 

control test in, 53 

epileptic, 170 

experience type in, 83, 84, 93 

protocol examples of, 158, 159, 170, 174 

rapport in, 78 

simple, see Simple schizophrenia 

Dementia Praecox, 20 

see also Schizophrenia 

Dementia Simplex 
see Simple schizophrenia 

Depressed arterioscierotic patients, 83 
Depression 

anatomical responses in, 47 

chiaroscuro responses, 195 

coartation in, 84, 85, 93, 102, 111 

Do responses in, 40 

experience type in, 83, 93, 94, 102, 111, 182 

and factors of test in, 27, 28, 30, 32, 40, 
42, 57, 60, 63, 64, 68, 73, 74, 83, 88, 98, 161 

interpretation in, 1748 

protocol examples of, 168, 199, 201, 215 

psychogenic, 85, 93 

psychopathology of, 20 

and rapport, 77 

stereo typy in, 47, 83 
Diagnosis 

blind diagnosis, 142, 185 

computations for, 122 

usefulness of test for, 120423 



Dilated experience t\j*e 
in ratatnnia. lit) 
in 4*hildren, 1^ 

creative mood, 111* 2l)3 

definition of, 81 

ani 93. 98 

protocol example of, 135 

and talent, lm 

variability of, 203 
Dofttojewski, 116 
Dreams, 123, 209, 212 

mud M ratponaes, 80 

physical activity, relation to, 72 

recalling of, 72 

E 

Egocentricitj 

and adaptability, 34, 37, 38, 92, 100 

and age, 96 

extratensive egocentricit>, 86, 98, 104 

factors of test in, 38, 8&, 90 

protocol examples of, 130, 134, 146, 157, 
195, 215 

rapport in, 78 
Emotional suppression, 35, 

abstract responses, relation to, 202, 210 

choice of colors, 35, 112 

and color shock, 84, 215 

in depression, 86 

and experience tvpe, 84, 98, 112, 124,202 
204,215 

forced color responses in, 68 

M responses, relation to, 202, 210 

protocol examples of, 149, 193495 
Eccentricity, 39 
Education 

and responses, 63 

protocol examples, 129, 130 
Elated mood 

see Manic subjects and hypomania 

Emotional control, 35 

choice of colors. 35, 98, 106, 107, 111 

and experience type, 98 

protocol examples of, 150, 195 
Emotional stability 

and response. 29-35, 76, 83, 98 

and emotional control, 86 

and etiquette, 80 

and experience type, 77, 80, 81, 83 

in pedants, 83 
Empath\, 99. 100 

and experience type in, 100 

protocol examples of, 126, 129, 130. 139 
Encephalitis lethargica, 180 
Energy of associative activity, 59, 61, 64. 71 
Engrams 

availability of, 59, 62, 63, 65, 90 



256 



and motor acti\it\. 80 
perception, relation to, 17 

Epileptics 

pperceptive t\je In, 38, 39, 60 

(' resfionseh In, *K). 33, 54 

dementia in, 54, 117 

empath\ in. 100 

e\j>erien<e t\pe in. 75, 76, 100, 117 

FC r*|M>nsfh In. 33, 34 

and genius, 85 

and interpretation, 17 

and M response*, 27, 64 

number of responses 21 

protocol examples of, 157, 170 

rapport in, 78 

stereotype in. 62 

W responses in, 42, 60 
Epileptoid subjects 

experience type in, 85 

factors of ftit in, 24, 28, 32, 12 

protocol example of, 173 
Experience type, 72419, 181, 182 

and age, 95, 111, 118 

and behavior. 87 

and components of intelligence, 88 

culture vs. civilization, 113 

definition of, 72, 87, 88 

a ad empathy, 99, 100 

and fatigue, 111 

in hysteria, 195 

and imagery type, 106 

and imagination, 102 

and instinct* 111 

and mode of life, 87 

and mood, 98, 94, 111 

in neurasthenia, 195 

in pathological conditions, 73-75, 115, 119, 
200, 215 

and personality, 102 

in poets, 106 

in pfyehasthenia, 195 

and race and nationality, 96-97 

and regression, 124 

and sense hallucinated, 107 

and sex, 96 

stability of, 95 

summary table of, 73, 78, 86, 91, 107, 108 

and talent, 107 

variation in, 94, 95. 110, 111, 114, 115 
Extratension, 72-87 

A responses in, 89 

adaptive, 90, 92, 96 

and age, 95, 96, 106 

apperceptive type in, 89 

changes in, 194, 203 

as constitutional factor, 87 

definition of, 81, 82 

effect of color on, 99 

effect of music on, 99 

egocentric, 86, 90. 92, 100, 104 



and empathv. 99, 100 
form visualization in, 90 
am! hallucinations, 107 

imagery t%j>* in, 105 
ami imagination. 102-104 
and intelligence, 88 

introversion, relation to, 82, 83, 113 
() responses in. 88 

in pathological conditions 116419, 123.215 
sequence of apperception in, 90 
aiul suggestihilitY. 100 
uroman table of, 86, 91, 181, 182 
and talent, 108, 110 
W responses in, 89 
Euphoria, 36, 43 



F (form responses), 22 

and C responses, 33-35, 72, 99 
complex* responses, relation to, 214 
control tests for, 53, 54 
effect of direction on, 67, 69, 85 
evaluation of, 23, 186, 204-206 
and experience type, 89 
and imagination, 103 
and intelligence, 56-58, 65 
interpretation, use in, 192, 198, 199. 204-206 
and M responses, 29, 64, 85 
in normals. 23 
optimal percent FHK 57 
original response, relation to. 47 
in pathological conditions, 23-24, 57 
ie pedants, 57 

perception, relation to. 22-23, 90 
and W response, relation to, 40 
FC (form-color responses), 29, 47 
and adaptability, 34, 99, 100, 199 
effect of direction on, 68 
and emotional stability 33 
and empathy. 100 
aod form visualization, 34 
interpretation, use in, 124, 193. 199, 
204-206, 211 

FC (form-color responses) 

and rapport, 33, 199 

symptom value of, 199 
Facial expression, 54 
Failure to answer, 22. 52, 67 
Famih studies, 96 
Fantasy 

and experience type, 76, 81 

and O responses. 63 

in pedants, 83 

protocol examples of, 146, 150. 173 
Fatigue, 56, 57 

and coartation, 94 

and experience t>pe iu, 111 

and imagery type, 106 



257 



protocol reference to, 180 
Feebleminded subjects 

anatomical rebponses In, 47, 62 

claritv of engrams in, 56 

confabulatory-combined response* In, 38 

Do responses in, 40 

experience t>pe in, 73, 75, 78, 92, 93 

factors of tc'st In, 26, 29, 31, 33, 41, 45, 50 
54, 60, 86 

and interpretation, 17 

logical function in, 93 

protocol example of, 132 
Flattening of affect, 88 
Flight}* subjects, 57, 73, 76 
Form visualization 

in C responses, 99 

in confabulated W responses, 38 

and concentration, 56 

and experience type, 90, 93 

in fatigue, 56 

and intelligence, 63 

and M responses, 64 

maximum and optimal, claritj of, 57 

aod mood, 93 

and O responses, 63 

in pedants, 83 

protocol references to, 166, 168 

and rapport, 34 

recognition of effort of interpretation, 90 

and rigidity of sequence, 58, 61, 90, 93 

and stability of emotion, 31 
Frank. L., 106 
Freud, 81, 124 



Genius, 85, 116 

Goal idea, 61, 66, 67. 87. 113, 115 

Goethe. 106, 112, 116 

Good humor* 

and components of intelligence, 70, 71 

and content, 214 

and experience type, 94 

and impulsiveness, 101 

manic state, relation to, 71, 79 

and W apperceptive type, 41 
Groos, Karl and Marie, 106 
* Grumbling personality 

see Personality types 

H 

Hallucinations, 125, 182 

sense hallucinated, 107 

type of, 116 
Handwriting, 110 
Handedness, 15, 54 
Hebephrenia, 20, 97 



of oocfti 117 

experience tjpe in, 14, 7r>, 1*3, 31*> 
factor* of teit In. 28, 32, 38, 
hallucination* in* 107 

logical function In, 113 
protocol of, 15%f 181 

rapport in, 77 

Hen?, Szymon, 102 
Hodlcr, Ferdinand, III 

Hoffman, E.T.A., 104 
Human 25 

sec Anatomical 

Humor 
protocol example of* 137 

Hypochondrias!*, 199 



anatomical responses In, 47 

C responses in, 32, 92, 98 

experience type In, 92-94 

factors of test in, 40, 57, 60, 70, 71 

mod f(ood humor*, 71,, 94 

M responses in, 27, 66, 70, 92 

O responses in, 65 

personality dilation in, 84, 92, 102 

protocol example of, 133 

and rapport, 77 

Hysteria 

A responses in, 45 

experience t>pe in, 123, 195 

in morons, 45 

protocol examples of, 142, 203, 213, 215 



Idealization of persons, 77 

Imagery, typ<* of 
auditory, 104407 

Imagery, type of (coot.) 
development of, 119 
and experience type, 104-106, 115, 119 
motor, 104, 105 
of observer, 26 
and perceptive type, 105 
of poets, 106 

protocol examples of, 130, 139 
and sense hallucinated, 107 
summary table of, 105 
visual, 104-106 

Imagination 

A responses in* 45, 62 

and confabulation, 104, 114 

and experience type, 73, 102, 123, 182 

and interpretation, 17 T 103, 104 

an M responses, 28, 63, 64 

protocol examples of, 137-139 

types of, 102, 114 

and W production, 41, 59, 61 



_ 258 



Imbecile 
free. Feebleminded subjects* 

Impulsiveness* 31, 100 
ami ambieqnal type*, 101 

and C response* 31-35, 1%, 208 

definition of, 100 

and Introversion, 101 

protocol examplefi of, 134, IB, 143, 150, 195 

inanimate objects, interpretation of, 4? 

Indolence 

and affective dulling, 93 
anil C responses, 33 
and coartation, 84 
and experience type, 93 
protf>col examples of, 159 

Inferiority ideas, 43 
see also intelligence complex 

"Inner creation* 
and delusions, 75 
and experience type, 75, 95, 118 
as factor in intelligence, 66, 72 
and M responses, 65, 66, 88, 92 
and mood, 71, 72 
protocol examples of, 193, 203 

Inspiration, 95, 111 

and change in experience type, 111 

poetic, 104 

protocol example of, 139 

Instinct, 88, 112, 113 

Intelligence, 57 

and A responses, 45 

characteristics of protocol in, 56 

control of interpretation in, 57, 92 

and experience type, 88, 90, 92, 115, 124 

and F responses, 23 

factors of, 56-66, 69 

intellectual adaptability, 63, 13d 

and M responses, 26, 63-65 

and mood, 70, 94 

and responses, 62, 63 

productivity of, 26, 88 

protocol example of, 126, 130, 136, 140, 

199, 215 

* reproductive*, 76, 94 
sequence of apperception in, 57, 59, 60 
variants of, 66, 124, 130, 181, 182, 199 
W responses in, 40, 59-61 

Introversion 

A responses in, 89 
absence of, 86 
active and passive, 82 
and age, 95, 96, 106 
apperceptive type in, 89 
changes in, 194, 203 
as constitution factor, 87 
definition of, 81, 82 
and empathy, 99 



! and experience type, 72, 77, 79, 123, 181 
) extroversion, relation to, 82, 83 
form visualization, 90 

hallucinations in, 107 

imagery type in, 105 

imagination, 103, 104 

impu!flivene$e in, 101 

as Dinner* life, 65, 88, 193 

and intelligence, 88 

O responses in, 88 

pathologic, 115 

in paranoia, 116 

process and slate of, 82 

protocol examples of, 135, 199, 203, 207, 215 

summary table of, 86, 91 

and talent, 90, 108, 110 

W responses in, 89 
Infra-psychic living, 64 
Integration, 17 
Intuition, 202, 203 
Involutional melancholia, 85 



Jung, 81, 115, 122 

K 

Kant, 110 

Kinaesthetic responses, 22 
see M. responses 

Korsakoff psychosis 

A responses in, 46, 51, 52 

C responses in, 32, 51, 52 

confabulatory-combined responses in, 38 

and experience type, 76 

F responses in, 24, 51, 52 

and M. responses in, 27, 28, 51, 52 

O responses in, 48, 51, 52 

protocol example of, 175 

peycbopattiology of, 20 

successive-combinatory responses in, 38 

W responses in, 42-44 
Kraeplin, 20 
Kubin, Alfred, 111 



Labile aflectivity 

and C responses, 98 

excitement, 98 

form visualization, relation to, 58 

loose sequence in, 58 

and imagination, 103 

and impulsiveness, 101 

protocol examples of, 130, 139, 143, 146 

and suggestibility, 100 
Language, 109 
Latent psychosis 

protocol example of, 155-158 



259 



au, 3 

Lenin, 101 

Libido, 81, 87, 113, 114, 125 

Lingual-motor imagery type, 105, 108, 109 

Logical function, 37. 43. 58, 6U 81, 92, 130, 149 

Louis XIV, 101 

Ludwig II of Bataria. 101 

Luther. 109 

Lwthe, E., 109 

M 

M (movement response*), 22-25, 187 
A responses, relation to, 45. 64, 103 
and altitude toward test. 
In artists, 63 

and both joitition., 29, 123 
and C responses. 31, 72-119, 78, 81, 92, 101 
coincidence with C responses, 35, 68, 69, 

193, 206 

control tests for, 53, 54 
and dementia, 117 
effect of direction on, 68, 69, 71 
emotional stability, relation to* 76, 101, 

207, 208 

emotional suppression, relation to, 193 
evaluation of, 25-29, 212 
and experience type, 72, 76, 83-88, 181, 182 
F responses, relation to, 27, 64, 67 
and foim visualization, 64, 72, 119 
in good humor 71 
and haptic hallucinations, 107 
and imagery type, 105 
and imagination, 103 
and impulsiveness, 101 
and intelligence, 26, 63, 64 
and intra-i>eychic living, 64 
and intuition, 202 
and mood, 27. 81, 92 
O responses, relation to* 47, 65 
in pathological conditions, 26-28 
perception, relation to, 22 
and physical niotility, 25, 81 
small M, 191 
and suggestibility, 100 
summary' table of, 28, 51, 52 
W responses, relation to, 40, 58, 64, 89 

MC (movement-color responses), 35-36 

Manic-depressive insanity 

experience type in, 75. 85, 94, 116 
factors of test in, 24, 27, 30, 32. 42. 46. 

48, 50, 51, 57, 64 
obsessive-compulsive neurosis, relation to, 

85, 116 

protocol examples of, 168-170 
psych opa thologv , 20 
types of, 20, 53 



W in, 42, 44 

Manic subject* 

tv|e, 90, 92 

* rwfMiBses, 33, 51, 52 
and C 30, 51. 52, 98 

components of in. 31, 52, 7! 

mod t*p*. 84, 85, 93, 

102, 181, 182 

F KtH>ii8e in, 20.24. 51. 52. 56 

PC in, 33, 34, 51, 52 

pood humor* to. 79 

and interpretation, I/, IS 

and M 51. 52, 16! 

physical activity In, 71, 78, 92 

protocol example of, 168 

recnrranee of content in, 215 

surcefmve-conibtnatory renponMn in, 58 

W refuses in. 38, 44, 5K 52, 59 
Menial cieficienc> 

see Feebleminded subjccte 
Moebius, 116 

Mood, 61, 64, 65, 70, 79, 101. 102, 

106, ill, 121, 122 

see also Depression, Maoic tubject*, 

H^fiomania, etc. 
Morons 

see Feebleminded subjects 
Mourning, 99 

Mowing control test, 54, 86 
Muscle tension, 81 
Music, 99, 108, 109, 112 
Myth 

and delusions, 97 

protocol example of, 139 

N 

Napoleon I, 116 
Nationality 

and art," 112 

and experience type, 96, 102, 112 

and hallucinations, 107 
Negativism 

protocol example of. 168 

and S response*, 39 
Nervous exhaustion, 155 
Neurasthenia 

experience type in, 195 

and M responses, 29 

protocol example of, 143 
Neurotic* subjects 

and C responses, 31 

color shock in* 35, 98 

etiology of, 114, 124 

experience type in, 117, 124 

and form visualization, 31 

protocol examples of, 142, 186-216 

repression in. 68, 193-195 



_ 260 



Metftcfae, 110 

Normal subjects, 19, 21-23, 50,51.53, 181, 183 
A responses In, 45, 67, 68 
apperception, mode of, 36 
ap|wnreptive tyjjc in, 41, 60 
and C responcea, 22, 29-35 
and exfierience type, 75, 83, 92, 193, 194 
and FC responses, 33, 34 
and interpretation of human figure, 47 
introversfoe tendency in, 82 
method of attack, 17, 36 
number of responses, 21 
protocols of, 126, 140 
reaction time in, 21 

of apperception in, 43 



Number of items as stimulus. 36 

Number of responses, 21, 53 

o 

C) ( original responses), 47, 51 
in artists, S3 
in eoartated subjects, B8 
and direction, 67, 92 
and fantasy, 63 
and *god humor*, 71 
and intelligence, 56 t 62, 63, 66 
M responses, relation to, 64, 88 
and occupation, 63 
optimum of, 63 

protocol references io, 164, 166, 198, 204 
reality, relation to, 89 
in schizophrenics, 47 
scoring of, 47 
summary table of, 48 
variability of, 63, 88 

Oberboker, E., 120, 184, 186, 199, 201, 207, 
212, 213 

Object responses, 47 

Obsessive-compulsive neurotics 
coartation in, 85 
Do responses in, 40, 192 
and emotional suppression, 84 
experience type in, 73, 117, 182. 195, 199, 

203, 215 

genius, relation to, 85 
impulsiveness in, 101 
and M responses, 88, 208 
manic-depressive insanity, 85, 116 
protocol examples of, 146, 215 
and rigidity of sequence, 58 
suggestibility in, 101 
and W responses, 60 

Occupation 
and A responses, 62 
Botany, 63 
business, 62 
and content, 122 



in depression, 4 

engineering, 201, 202 

housewife, 140 

medicine, 63 

mistakes in selection of, 114 

protocol examples of, 134, 140 

as research problem, 96 

science, 110 

tradesman, 63 
Oppoflitional tendency, see also Negativism 

protocol examples of, 130, 150 

5 responses in, 39 
Organic psychoses 

and clarity of engrams, 37, 65 

experience type in, 75, 76, 117 

factors of test in, 27, 32, 38, 42, 44, 46. 
48, 50, 59, 60 

and interpretation, 17 

and logical function, 58 

protocol examples of, 174-180 

psycbopatbolog)- of, 21, 120 
Overwork, 114 



Painters 

see Artists 

Parallel series of plates, 53 
Paranoia, 20 

age of onset, 116 

experience type in, 116 
Paranoid subjects 

and experience type, 75, 83, 85, 116 

factors of test in, 24, 28, 31, 38, 42, 44, 46, 48 

hallucinations in, 107 

intensive rapport in, 77 

protocol examples of, 167-168 

psydhopatbology of, 20, 97 
Paresis, 19 

and experience type, 74, 78, 93, 117 

factors of test in, 21, 28, 33, 44, 46, 48, 50 

and interpretation, 17 

logical function in, 93 

protocol example of, 178 
Passivity, 207, 208 

Pedantic subjects 
A percent in, 46 

apperception, mode of, 36, 37, 42, 44, 60, 61 
coartation in, 85 
and color responses, 33, 50, 68 
compulsion neurosis, relation to, 85 
and Do responses, 40, 192 
experience type in, 83, 117, 182 
and form visualization, 23, 24, 57, 83, 192, 199 
and interpretation, 17 
M responses in, 27, 64 
O responses in, 48, 88 
protocol examples of, 130, 139 
and rapport, 77, 80 



261 



sequence of apperception In, 42, 44, 57 

Perception, 16-18 

and G responses, 22. 98 

effect of rending on. 118 
effort in. 17, 90 
nod F responses, 22 
and M responses, 22 

and type of imager>, 105 

Perseveration 

protocol examples of, 161, 162, 173, 174, 180 

Personality 

and experience type, 98, 101, 102 

Personality t > pes 

abstract* thinker, 60-63, 130 

active, 134 

ambitious. 41, 59, 127, 132, 149, 150 

artists, 31, 36, 40, 62, 63 

ascetic, 200 

benevolent, 101 

brooding, 124. 151 

Bureaucratic, 58, 61, 77 

business man, 77 

common, sense, 60 

concrete. 61, 137 

conscientious, 140 

creative, 63 

defiant, 200 

diligent, 59, 126, 131. 140, 154 

dogmatic, 62 

emotional, 143 

energetic, 134 

enthusiast, 100, 130 

flighty, 57, 76, 134 

generous, 134 

grumbler, 39, 60, 61. 124, 137, 139, 140, 

150, 199 

*hail fellow, well met, 76 
imitative, 63 
impractical, 60. 62 
industrious. 73 

in the world but not of it, 63, 89, 146 
irritable, 31, 98. 100, 146, 150 
jealous, 101 

light hearted, 76, 77, 214 
logical, 58 
model pupil, 119 
modest, 140 
moody, 101. 126, 146 
passive, 146 

pedant, see Pedantic subjects 
phlegmatic, 99, 200 
philosophic. 59 
practical. 61-63, 73. 108, 126, 140, 145, 

182, 198 

querulous, 76, 77, 93, 157 
quick witted, 198 
quiet. 126. 140 
reactive, 126, 130 



readv 

reality avoiding, H*J 

reformers 111) 



1GO, 14t 

shop talking 63, I9H 

*luggifeh, 146 

steadfast, 126 

taciturn, 76 

talented, 36, 77, 84. **, 101. 13 > 

tempermentml, 148 

theoretical, 43, 62, 63. 108 

torpid, 133 

tyrant, 60, 101 

unoriginal, 63 

vigorous, 130 

nithout pettine^, 134 

zealots 100 
Perspective, 200 
Philosophers, 108 
Physical activity 

and responses. 98 

and dreams, 72 

and experience type, 78, 79 

and factors of the test, 71, 72 

M responses, relation to, SO, 81 

in manic subjects, 71 

protocol examples of, 161, 162 

Plates 

construction, 15 

damage in use, 20 

description of, 52 

order of. 53 

parallel series, 52 

symmetry of* 15 
Position of items as stimulus, 36 

interpretation, use in, 197, 210, 211 
Procedure, 16 

Programmatic thinking, 197, 215 
Prognosis, 123 
Projection, 104 
Psuedologia Phantastica* 104 
Psychoana ivsis 

effect of," 146-155, 214 

prognosis in, 123 

protocol example, 146-155, 184-21B 

relation of test to, 123 T 184 

shift of xperience type. 124 
Psychogram, 215 
Psychopathology 

summary of, ^3 

R 

K (total responses), 14, 21 
Race 

and experience type, 96. 97. 102 

and imagery type. 106 



262 - 



Rapport 

and C responses 98 
capacity for, 63, 76, 10 1 
and chiaroscuro resfwnsa?, 195 
and delusions, 77 
and experience type, 76, 98 
extensive, 77, 85 
and FC responses, 33, 199, 204 
intensive, 77, 81, 85 
and M responses, 80 
and mode of apperception, 36, 37 
protocol examples of, 137, 139, 140, 154, 
157, 164, 195 

Reaction time, 118 
Reality 

experience type, relation to, 72, 80, 81, 119 

and test procedure, 123 
Recognition 

as form of interpretation, 17 
Recording technique, 14, 54, 55, 205 
Religion, 65, 146 
Regression, 124 
Revelation, % 
Reverie, 40 
Rodin, 122 
Ronehadb, Hermann, 10-12, 184 



S (space responses), 39-41 

interpretation, use in, 200, 211 

protocol examples of, 130, 150, 168, 200 

scoring of, 39, 40, 52, 186 

significance of, 39, 150, 199 
Sadism, masochism, 146, 207 
Scattering, 62, 71, 74, 76, 89 

protocol examples of, 150, 157 
Schiller, 106 
Schizophrenia, 19, 21-23 

A responses in. 45, 89 

abstract responses in, 47 

age of onset of, 116 

Bleuler's psychopathology, 20 

and C responses, 30, 33, 54 

coartation in, 84. 93 

contaminated-combined responses in, 38, 
41, 42 

Dd-W responses in, 41 

delusions in, 104 

deterioration in, 84 

diagnosis of, 120. 123 

Do responses in, 39 

experience type in, 75, 76. 97, 116 

and form visualization, 31 

and good humor*, 71 

and interpretation. 17 

and interpretation of human figure, 16 

and introversion. 17 



latent, 155-158 

and M response*, 27, 54 

and MC resfKmses, 36 

and nationality, 97 

O res|K>nses in, 47 

position as stimulus in, 36 

protocol example* of, 157-168 

querulous, 76, 77, 93 

S responses in, 39 

Mattering, 60, 62, 71, 74, 76, 89 

and self reference, in responses 47 

and sen*e hallucinated, 106. 116 

sequence of apperception, 58 

types of, 20 

W responses in, 40, 60 

Schopenhauer, 81 
Self-assertion, 29 
Self-criticism, 23, 51, 200 

Senile dementia, 19, 21 
and empathy, 100 

and experience type, 74, 93, 100, 117 
factors of test in". 24, 28, 32, 42, 44, 46, 

48, 50, 51 

interpretation in, 17 
and logical function, 93 
protocol example of, 179 
rapport, type of, 78 

Sequence of apperception, 36, 43 
and attitude toward test, 43 
and constitution, 61 
effect of direction on, 67, 69 
and experience type, 89, 90. 93, 103 
and imagination, 103 
and intelligence, 57, 59 
interpretation, use in. 197 
loose, 43, 58 

optimum rigidity of, 43, 58, 61 
and pedantry, 57 
protocol references to, 157, 161, 192, 

196, 204 

rigid, 43, 58, 60, 61 
in schizophrenia, 45, 157 
types of, 43 

Sex 

and apperceptive type, 43 

and CF responses. 33 

and experience type, 96 

and interpretation of inanimate objects, 47 

protocol examples of, 155-157 

and talent, 112 

and W responses, 40, 96 

Shakespeare, 106 

Simple schizophrenia, 20 

experience type in, 74, 84, 90, 93, 95, 107, 1 16 
factors of test in, 28, 31, 40, 42, 4648, 50 
protocol examples of, 158, 159. 182 

Somnambulism, 80 



- 263 



Statistical method*, 23, 26, 30, 33, 39, 65 

Stereotypy* 15 

and mge, 62 

and apathy, 62 

concentration, relation to, 62 

and disciplined thinking, 87, 92 

and experience type, 83, 85, 89, 92 

factors of test in, 32, 45, 46, 65, 68, 192 

and form visualization, 57 

and intelligence, 64, 65 

and mood, 62, 64 

protocol examples of. 131. 140, 142, 143, 
149, 159, 162, 173, 174 

in schizophrenia, 89 
Stern, W., 104406, 112 
Successive-corabinatory response?, 38, 59 
Suggestibility 33, 100, 150 
Symbols and abbreviations, list of, 14 
Symptom value 

in color responses, 33 

in intelligence, 56 
Synthesis 

protocol example of, 139 



Table of basic protocol studies, 18 

(material of study) 
Talent 

and age, 111 

and ambiequal type, 90 

basis for development of, 113 

in dancing, 109 

development of, 110, 113 

and dilation of personality, 84, 85 

dissipation of, 111 

in drawing, 111, 113 

exhaustion of, 111 

and experience type, 101, 107, 111, 182 

and imagery type, 104, 105 

and instinct, 113 

and MC responses, 36 

and mood, 116 

for organization, 110 

protocol example of, 130, 136, 139 

and rapport, 77 

reproductive, 109 

as research problem, 96 

table of experience types in, 108 

variation and comparison of, 110 



Technician*, 10, 1IB 

Thinking, diftcipHne of, 87 

Traumatic neurone, 43 

U 

Unconscious, the, 123 

Unintelligent 
see Feebleminded subjects 

V 

Variability of response 

and mood, 62, 70, 71, 182 

optimum of. 61 

Volition 
see Will 

Vulgar response, 185, 188, 191, 198, 

w 

W (whole responses), 36-41, 52, 190 

and confabulation, contamination, 38, 39 
confabulated W response*, (DW), 37 
and content of interpretations, 66 
effect of direction upon, 68 
evaluation of, 37 
and imagination, 103 
as indicator of mood, 60 
in intelligence 58, 63, 65 
interpretation, use in. 192, 196, 197, 199 

202, 211 

M responses, relation to, 40, 64, 89 
and mood, 60 

in pathological states, 50, 51. 60, 124 
scoring of, 37, 38 
and sex, 40, 96 
summary table of, 42 
in various personality types, 59-61, 63 
W apperceptive type, 41 
and will, 59 

Wilhelm II, 101 

Will 

and experience type, 87, 91, 92, 103 

and imagination, 103 

influence of, 66 

and intelligence, factors of, 69, 91, 92 

talent, development of, 113 

and W responses, 59, 60 



P Ruch-Daulle Bti-Bienne ( Schwaiz ) 




122526 



I